Economic Growth: From Open labour market to Fortress Europe

 
1 Description of the migration movement
2 Causes of migration
3 Consequences of migration
4 Reactions on migration

CHARACTERISTICS

At the end of the 19th century the market economy had become the dominant form of economic organisation in Europe. Economic fluctuations became more pronounced and the consequences were perceptible worldwise. The economic crisis in the thirties was an example of such a fluctuation with large and widespread consequences.

During the first half of the 20th century a growing gap developed between a small number of technically advanced, powerful, rich countries and the rest of the world.

The demographic proportions had changed by the end of the 19th century. While ever since the second half of the 18th century the "white" population had been growing at a faster rate than others, this was now no longer the case since in most Third World countries the population grew faster than the economy, resulting in massive poverty.

European agriculture began to decline after 1950 as urbanisation increased. There were fewer people who owned land than ever and the industry was situated largely in the cities. Rural industry had lost the competition with urban industry and due to developments like better education, higher productivity, mechanisation and lower prices, the countryside was abandoned by many.

Although people were available for the new growing industries, there was still a need for extra labourers to work in industry, doing the undesirable jobs. The fact that people in rich western countries went to school longer and did not work the long hours they used to combined with a low birth-rate and many war casualties led to an increase in the deficiency. There were enough countries in other parts of the world however, subdued to the world economy, where there was high population growth and little capital. Even though there were strict rules concerning migration, many people were invited to the West and rules about the supposed temporary character of this migration were not maintained very strictly because of the enormous labour shortage.

EFFECT OF CHARACTERISTICS ON MIGRATION

Even before the economic crisis of 1930, states started regulating migration as a result of the First World War and the Russian Revolution. All countries adjusted the immigration to the needs of the labour market so that people who were needed for the industries were allowed to come while others were not. Because of the better means of transportation and communication, the rich countries feared to be overwhelmed with poor immigrants from other parts of the world.

The economic crisis accelerated this process. Labourers were allowed to come on a temporary basis only and needed a permit to work in many countries. For instance, between the first and second World War labourers from Germany, Italy, Poland and Slovenia went to the Netherlands, Italians went to England, France recruited many labourers from Spain, Portugal, Poland, Italy, Greece, Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia, Irish workers went to England.

Because of the ongoing urbanisation the short-distance agricultural migration almost vanished after the Second World War. Many people now moved to the cities permanently. To further increase the number of labourers countries even recruited labourers officially. (For instance France, the Netherlands, England, Belgium and Germany got workers from Italy, Spain, Morocco, Turkey etc.) Besides that, many of them came spontaneously, doing jobs nobody wanted to do and in order to make money quickly to support their families back home.

1. DESCRIPTION OF THE MIGRATION MOVEMENT

1.1 Who were they and where did they come from: ethnic origin, geographical background, religion, adults, men or women, special qualities?
People from poor countries (Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Philippines, Mexico, Algeria, Morocco, Egypt, Turkey, Poland, Yugoslavia, etc.), moved between 1950 and 1990 towards rich areas in the West (Western Europe, United States, Canada) and in the East (Japan, Gulf area, Australia).

Western Europe
Germany
After 1989, 2 million Eastern Germans went to Western Germany.

Nordic countries
More than two thirds of the Finnish migrants (1960-1985) to Sweden were young people between 15 and 34 years of age. Young women predominated both groups at the beginning of the period and again in the 1980s. The educational background of emigrants to Sweden is the same as that of corresponding age groups in Finland. 25% was unemployed, underemployed or outside the labour force when they left Finland.

Southern Europe
Spain
Spanish guest workers immigrated to Belgium officially from 1958 onwards, before that unofficially.
Guest workers came to the Netherlands from 1961. Between 1955 and 1975, Spanish guest workers also went to Germany. Many went to Berlin and to industry cities.
Illegal immigration in Spain, which began in the eighties, is more common among women than men. On the whole, male immigrants outnumber their female counterparts. In Spain, the main stream of legal immigrants came from EU countries, followed by Eastern Europe, the USA and Latin America, North Africa and Asia.

Portugal
Portuguese guest workers came to Germany between 1955 and 1975. Many went to Berlin and to industry cities. After 1963, guest workers from Portugal also came to the Netherlands.

Italy
Belgium was entered by many guest workers between 1945 and 1973, especially Italians. In 1961, 44% of the foreigners in Belgium were Italian.
The first guest workers in the Netherlands were Italians. During two decades (1950-1970), employers in the Dutch coal mines and the textile industry recruited them. But after 1960 other Mediterranean workers were hired.

Greece
Between 1955 and 1975 Greek guest workers went to Germany. Many went to Berlin and to industry cities. After 1963, guest workers from Greece came also to the Netherlands.

Eastern Europe
Poland
Immigrants from Poland and Albania came to Greece between 1960 and 1980.

Yugoslavia
Yugoslavian guest workers came to Germany between 1955 and 1975. Many went to Berlin and to industry cities. After 1963, guest workers from Yugoslavia also came to the Netherlands.
The Yugoslavian migrants belonged to many different population groups - Croats, Serbs Macedonians, Albanians, Romanians, Turks, Slovenians and others.

Balkan
Turkey
Turkish guest workers went to Germany between 1955 and 1975. Many went to Berlin and to industry cities. After 1964, guest workers from Turkey came to the Netherlands. And after 1975, Turks came to the Netherlands to join their family-member that had already lived and worked in the Netherlands for a long time. The period 1975-1978 is characterised by large-scale family reunification. As a result, 40% of the Turkish migrant population of West Germany, Switzerland, Sweden and Norway were under 18 years of age in 1980.

Africa
In Italy, immigrants came from the Third World between 1960 and 1980. The foreigners who immigrated to Spain from Africa and Asia during the 1980s were relatively young: most of them were between 22 and 40 years of age, had had little education beyond primary school and were not unemployed in their native countries. Most Africans worked in the construction industry while most Moroccans were employed in wholesale or retail trade.

North Africa
Guest workers from Tunisia and Morocco went to Germany between 1955 and 1975. Many went to Berlin and to industrial cities. After 1964, guest workers from Morocco came also to the Netherlands. From 1975 on, Moroccans came to the Netherlands to join their family-member that had already lived and worked in the Netherlands for a long time.

Asia
The foreigners who immigrated to Spain from Africa and Asia during the 1980s were relatively young: most of them were between 22 and 40 years of age and had little education beyond primary school.

1.2 How did they travel: transport, circumstances of travelling?

1.3 When?
Western Europe
Nordic countries
From 1946 to 1977, about 415,000 Finish citizens migrated, of which 81% went to Sweden.

1.4 How many?
In 1994, family-reunion took place. World wide there were 15 Million family-reunions. In the same year, there were 25 million labour migrants and 20 million illegal migrants world wide.

Western Europe
UK
Total of emigrants until 1988. From Ireland: 630.000

Germany
Right after WWII, 80.000 labour migrants were brought to England: 10.000 German women went to England, women from Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania, 2000 women from Austria went to England.

France
4 Million migrants came to France between 1955 and 1974: Belgians, Italians, Spaniards, Poles, Portuguese 1954: 20.000, Algerians 1962: 350.000, Moroccans 1962 - 1966: 67.000, Tunisians, Africans, and Asians. Portuguese between 1965 and 1975: 760.000. 1974: Italians: 573.000, Spaniards: 571.000, Moroccans: 270.000, Algerians: 846.000, Tunisians: 150.000, Africans (Black-Africa): 77.000, Yugoslavs: 79.000, Turks: 46.000. In 1990, this resulted in 3.6 million migrants present in France. 600.000 from Maghreb, 200.000 from Spain, Italy and Turkey.
Belgium was entered by many guest workers between 1945 and 1973: Italians: From 1946 onwards. 1961: 44% of the foreigners in Belgium were Italian. Spanish immigrated officially from 1958 onwards, before that they had immigrated unofficially. 1961: 15.787 Spaniards in Belgium. Greek came to Belgium also: 1961: 9.797, 1970: 22.354. Turks after 1960, 1977: 80.000. Moroccans after 1964, 1977: 90.000. There was also a small number of Algerians and Tunisians.

Nordic countries
Total of emigrants until 1988 From Finland to Sweden: 127.900

Southern Europe
Spain
Total of emigrants until 1988: 508.300

Portugal
Total of emigrants until 1988: 751.300

Italy
Other large immigrant groups between 1945 and 1971: Italians: 5000 right after WWII, 1951: 38.427 Italians in England, 1961: 87.243, 1971: 108.985.
Total of emigrants until 1988: 1.409.000

Greece
Total of emigrants until 1988: 274.800

Eastern Europe
Austria
Total of emigrants until 1988: 155.000

Yugoslavia
In the decade (1964-1973), the number of Yugoslav citizens in European and overseas countries had grown from a few thousands to almost 1.5 million. Total of emigrants until 1988: 679.800

Balkan
Turkey
Total of emigrants from Turkey until 1988: 1.846.300
In twenty years (1955-1975), 900.000 Turks went to Germany as migrant workers. And in 1991, 1.5 Million Turks were in Germany. In 1997, 215,00 Turkish nationals resided in the Netherlands.

Africa
North Africa
Total of emigrants from Morocco until 1988: 791.000

* 1997:170,000 Moroccan nationals resided in the Netherlands.
Total of emigrants from Tunisia until 1988: 254.000

1.5 Permanent or temporary?
The stay of labour migrants was meant to be temporary, but often turned out to be permanent.
The recession of 1966/1967 did not provoke a massive return to the home countries. The host countries realised that foreign manpower was becoming 'permanent'. Above all, there was a rapid increase in family members during the seventies, reinforcing the idea that temporary 'immigrants' were becoming permanent ethnic minorities.

Western Europe
France
Some migrant labourers from France went back home in the seventies.

Netherlands
After 1973, the migrants in the Netherlands did not return home. Instead they brought over their families.

Nordic countries
Return migration between Sweden and Finland has followed immigration like a shadow, increasing or decreasing one or two years after a change in immigration. A higher proportion of Finnish women than men has remained in Sweden, and many married or formed partnerships with Swedish men between 1960 and 1985.

Southern Europe
Spain
Many Spanish guest workers stayed in Belgium temporarily between 1945 and 1973, while a small number stayed permanently and brought their families to Belgium as well. The labour migration to the Netherlands was supposed to be temporary. Among the first groups that came, Spaniards indeed often returned home.

Portugal
The migration of Portuguese to France (1965-1975) was semi-permanent, they stayed long but not for good.

Italy
Many Italian guest workers stayed in Belgium temporarily, a small part stayed permanently and brought their families to Belgium as well. The labour migration to the Netherlands was supposed to be temporary. The first groups that came, Italians indeed often returned home.

Greece
Many Greek left Belgium after a while, but returned again later.

Balkan
Turkey: The migration of Turks towards Germany between 1955 and 1975 was meant to be temporary, but turned out to be permanent in many cases. 50% returned home. In Europe, 2.536,783 Turkish citizens had taken up permanent residence. But the priority of the Turkish workers upon their arrival was to save money in order to create a business for themselves upon their return.

Africa
North Africa
The return rate of Moroccans from Western Europe has always been very low.

1.6 Where did they go to and where did they stay?
Western Europe
UK
After WWII until the present Irish went to England.

Germany
Since the end of WWII, East Germans went to Western Germany.

Netherlands
Many guest workers came to the Netherlands between 1949 and 1973.

Belgium
Belgium was also entered by many guest workers.
Nordic countries

* Fins went to Sweden.

Southern Europe
Greek, Italians, Portuguese and Spaniards migrated towards Austria, Belgium, Denmark, England, France, the Netherlands, Norway, Switzerland and Western Germany. Some before WWII, most between 1950 and 1973.

Eastern Europe
Poles, Rumanians, Hungarians and Yugoslavs went after WWII to Austria, Belgium, France, Switzerland and Western Germany. After 1989, the end of the Cold War, many Eastern Europeans went to the West: Poles, Gypsies, Albanese, Yugoslavs, Hungarians, Eastern Germans, and Romanians.

Yugoslavia
Germany, Austria, Sweden and France were the main receiving countries of Yugoslavian migrants between 1960 and 1975.

Austria
After WWII, Austrians went to Western Germany.

Balkan
Turkey
Turks went to Belgium, France, the Netherlands, Western Germany and some to Spain. Most of them between 1950 and 1973.

Africa
North Africa
Moroccans and Tunisians went to Belgium, France, the Netherlands, Western Germany and some to Spain. Most of them between 1950 and 1973.

2. CAUSES OF MIGRATION

2.1 Circumstances that favoured migration
Western Europe
Germany
With the recruitment of the so-called 'guest workers' from European countries in the mid-1950s, Germany changed its migrant policy. From a historical status as a country of emigration, Germany became a country of immigration.

France
The 1960s were a period of unprecedented economic growth. The recruitment of unskilled labour became central to the process of capital accumulation in France. France signed an agreement with Turkey in 1967 to recruit labourers there.
Some migrants went back to their country because of a premium they could get from the French government in 1973.

Netherlands
Western Europe's economy recovered rapidly after the war also in the Netherlands. Some sectors, like the mines and the growing industry, soon found it difficult to find enough hands to do the jobs. Therefore, it was very easy to get a labour permit as a stranger. The Dutch State formulated rules for the recruitment of labour during the sixties. The regulations were made at state level: with Italy (1960), Spain (1961), Portugal (1963), Turkey (1964), Greece (1966), Morocco (1969), Yugoslavia and Tunisia (1970).

Belgium
Belgium signed an agreement with Turkey in 1965 to recruit labourers in that country.

Nordic countries
The information about the other countries (Sweden and Finland) has been rich and easily accessible, thanks to earlier migrants. Chain migration has been a traditional form of recruitment of new migrant workers. In the 1980s, Finnish industries began to invest in Sweden and bought several Swedish companies. Consequently, a new kind of Finnish immigrant appeared in Sweden, namely the economic and administrative professionals.
In 1954, a Nordic agreement about free circulation of labour gave citizens of four Nordic countries full access to a common labour market. Nevertheless, Sweden signed an agreement with Turkey in 1967 to recruit labourers there.


Irish being teased
"Most Irish in Britain are being teased,
because they're Irish. Almost 80 per cent of
all Irish in Britain have to deal with joking
colleagues and insulting remarks.
Most Irish are the poorest of the country.
They have less chance to climb the
social ladder. The unemployment among Irish
is higher and their health is worse than the
health of other groups of the population".

An article from the Dutch newspaper 'de Volkskrant' from 27th June 1997.

Southern Europe
Contemporary immigration to Southern Europe is common, because this part of Europe is easy to enter.

Spain
In Spain, the development of the domestic economy and the international situation gradually reversed the migratory process and, in the first five years of the 1980s, Spain became a receiving country.

Italy
Between 1945 and 1971 English employers put adds in Italian papers in order to find labourers. This caused emigration which, combined with other factors, caused Italy to face a dramatic decline in birth rates leading to an actual population decline between 1960 and 1980. The main pull factor for immigrants to Italy has been the strong demand for flexible labour throughout the year, but especially in the summer due to the high seasonality in the major productive branches of agriculture, construction and tourism.

Greece
During the two decades 1960-1980 Greece faced a dramatic decline in birth rates, leading to an actual population decline so that labourers were needed. The main pull factor for immigrants to Greece however was the strong demand for flexible labour throughout the year, but especially in the summer due to the high seasonality in the major productive branches of agriculture, construction and tourism.

Eastern Europe
Yugoslavia
The political decision to open up the borders of the Yugoslavian federation to emigration was associated with the launching of a radically liberal economic reform in 1965.
France signed migrant labour-treaties in 1963 with Yugoslavia.

Balkan
Turkey
A free exit from Turkey came about for its citizens only with the adaptation of the constitution of 1961, whereby leaving or entering the country became a fundamental right. Turkey's first five-year development plan (1962-1967) supported 'the export of excess unskilled labour to Western Europe'. This was one of the possibilities for alleviating unemployment, which also was hoped to facilitate the acquisition of new skills and thus contribute to the industrialisation of the country. This perception and the growing needs of the West German labour market led to a massive increase in emigration. Almost all of the initial out-migration took place at the invitation of the industrial countries. For example, France signed migrant labour-treaties in 1963 with Turkey, as did other West European countries.
The great difference in prosperity between the Netherlands and Turkey made young people in the Netherlands very attractive marriage partners from 1985 on.

Africa
North Africa
France signed migrant labour-treaties with Morocco and Tunisia in 1963.
The great difference in prosperity between the Netherlands and Morocco made young people in the Netherlands very attractive marriage partners from 1985 on.
Physical closeness partly accounts for the movement of Moroccans into Spain or Tunisians into Sicily between 1990 and 1997.

2.2 Circumstances that hindered migration
Western Europe
Against the background of the oil crisis in 1973, official recruitment in all western European countries came to an abrupt stop.

Netherlands
The main Dutch instrument of governmental control was the work permit, which during the seventies could only be acquired in the home country and no longer in the Netherlands.
The measures taken by the Dutch government to discourage immigration and to stimulate return migration between 1975 and 1990 had no effect.

Nordic countries
From around 1970, the Finnish government, concerned by the growing loss of population and income, started a major research programme and appointed a commission on emigration to prepare a policy programme, including proposals for Finland's support to it's emigrants in Sweden.
In 1972, Sweden stopped its recruitment of non-Nordic labour.
In the 1990s, immigration and refugee policy became restrictive, and Sweden was unlikely to extend minority rights to any of the immigrant communities.

Eastern Europe
Yugoslavia:
For almost 20 years, socialist Yugoslavia (1945-1964) was a closed country.

Balkan
Turkey
The ban on further recruitment in Europe from 1973 on led to an enormous increase in 'political refugees' requesting asylum. New rules however involving residence in camps, and ineligiblibility for work permits and social security entitlements reduced requests for asylum in the 1980s.
All European countries introduced a visa requirement for Turks in 1973, thereby reducing visiting between migrants and their families and contributing to a growing tension between the host country and its immigrant workers. To enter the Netherlands in 1997 Turks needed a passport and a visa.

Africa
North Africa
To enter the Netherlands in 1997 Moroccans needed a passport and a visa.

2.3 Direct causes of migration
Western Europe
Foreigners came to Western Europe because of poverty in their own country and wealth in the countries to which they went. In the late 50s and 60s, industry in Western Europe expanded rapidly and caused a shortage of labour. The governments and employers tried to attract labourers from other countries, because there were not enough in their own country. The migration became permanent because the situation in the home countries of the migrants has not yet changed and social facilities were better in the countries in Western Europe.

UK
Irish were motivated to go to England because of better wages and insurance between 1945 and 1971.

France
Bad circumstances in the "home" countries of labour migrants favoured migration towards rich countries between 1945 and 1965. In rich countries such as France a large demand for labourers existed, partially due to the fact that France had experienced a population shortage because of demographic problems; a small number of children were born and the war had caused a large number of deaths. After 1965, the constant grow of the economy also contributed to the labour shortage.

Southern Europe
Western Europe offered the emigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe the opportunity to work and make money between 1945 and 1973. They could return home whenever they wanted.

Italy
Italian labour migrants went to England because of poverty in their own country and the existence of jobs in England. The Southern part of Italy was very poor and WWII had only made it worse. After 1969, the migration decreased, because Italians were able to find jobs closer to their homes in Germany or Northern Italy and because English economic growth had decelerated.
The same reasons stimulated migration to Belgium, especially to the mines.

Greece
The "Colonel-regime" (1967 - 1974) in Greece prompted many to leave the country. After 1956 more returned because Italians did not come in such big numbers as before, having been scared off by several mining-accidents in Belgian mines which had killed many Italians. The Italian government took measures to stop this migration.

Eastern Europe
Between 1945 and 1973, Western Europe offered emigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe the opportunity to work and make money. They could return home whenever they wanted.
Push factors of the nineties to leave the east were: currency exchange regulations, passport regulations, manpower export agencies, unemployment, political discrimination and ethnic minority problems. Pull factors to go to EC-countries were: inter-governmental agreements, work permits, the existence of earlier-established migrant communities and the availability of often irregular work in the underground economy.

Balkan
Turkey
Germany needed labour migrants, Turkey could not offer anyone a fine job and income. That is why many Turks went to Germany between 1945 and 1973. Also Turkey suffers from heavy population pressure, political tensions, violence and economic crisis; conditions that create a permanent 'push factor'.
Due to the ongoing secessionist armed uprising in Turkey's south-east regions, a new increase of emigration was recorded in the 1990s.

Africa

* 1980s: Unlike European immigrants, the majority of immigrants from the so-called Third World came to Spain during the eighties for economic reasons. Africans decided to emigrate to Europe after having attempted to secure better living conditions in their own countries.

North Africa
From 1960 until now, Morocco has suffered from heavy population pressure, political tensions, violence and economic crisis; conditions that create a permanent 'push factor'.

3. CONSEQUENCES OF MIGRATION
3.1 Short term consequences
Positive consequences
- for the migrants (first generation)
- for their new environment / native born
- for the country they left
- for the country they left
Migrants often sent a large part of their money to their families in their home country. This stimulated the economy over there and contributed to the welfare of these families.

Western Europe
Nordic countries
- for the country they left
Emigration from Finland grew heavily up to a peak in 1969/1970. As a consequence of this large migration, Sweden and Finland, in several public sectors and on all administrative levels, developed a system of close cooperation both in formulation and in implementation of migration policy.

Negative consequences
- for the migrants (first generation)
- for their new environment / native born
- for the country they left
- for the country they left

* 1960-1980: Emigration leads to reduced total populations, both directly and by reduced fertility, and undermines the economic and social viability of rural communities from the sixties until the eighties. Such a process may become cumulative and irreversible, posing formidable problems for rural planning.

Western Europe
Netherlands
- for the migrants (first generation)
From the sixties until now, housing is seen as one of the most serious problems for the migrants in the Netherlands.

- for their new environment / native born
During the sixties, employers in the Netherlands received a booklet about how to treat Italians. It was a booklet full of generalisations. As a result of the recruitment of labourers there were also many spontaneous migrants. This worried the unions, but no action was taken to stop it.

Southern Europe
Italy
- for their new environment / native born
Between the sixties and the eighties, the immigrants in Italy boost the underground economy and contribute little to the ailing social insurence system because much of the employment is illegal.
Greece

- for their new environment / native born
Between the sixties and the eighties, the immigrants in Greece boost the underground economy and contribute little to the ailing social insurence system because much of the employment is illegal.

Eastern Europe
Yugoslavia
- for the country they left

* 1965-1975: Emigration initially to took off in metropolitan regions and came to involve a high number of skilled workers and highly educated persons. This gave international migration between 1965 and 1975 the character of a skill drain and brain drain process, which was costly for the sending country.

Balkan
Turkey
- for the country they left

* 1960-1980: For countries like Turkey and Morocco where mainly males emigrated temporarily between 1960 and 1980, the fertility decline due to emigration was negligible. A second effect of sustained rural out-migration is the potentially dramatic loss of farm workers, which may distort the rural labour market.

3.2 Long term consequences
- for the migrants (second and third generation)
Some immigrants in Western Europe wanted to stay and therefore wanted their families to come as well. This led to family reunion in the seventies.

Positive consequences
- for the migrants (second and third generation)
- for their new environment
- for the country they left

Western Europe
- for their new environment
Partly because of the enormous amount of labour migrants that had entered Western Europe since 1945, the Western European countries had become multi-cultural and multi-ethnic countries.
Netherlands
- for the migrants (second and third generation)
The integration of the reunification children into Dutch schools became a major issue between 1975 and 1985.
Belgium
- for their new environment
Because of foreign miners, Belgian mines stayed in business longer than they would have done otherwise.

Balkan
Turkey
- for the country they left
A major impact of migration has flowed from remittance incomes, which have helped bridge the gap in the balance of trade and provided precious foreign exchange. Remittances increased income inequality in particular regions, while the benefits went predominantly to capital and finance centres like Istanbul and Izmir. Remittances also increased the size of the service sector for demand reasons. Migrants expanded the demand for transport, banking and communication services. Turkish workers abroad stimulated business and tourist travel between the EU countries and Turkey, which enlarged the Turkish servive economy.

Negative consequences
- for the migrants (second and third generation)
- for their new environment
- for the country they left

Western Europe
- for the migrants (second and third generation)
The rising unemployment from the eighties on caused a growing xenophobia.
Netherlands
- for the migrants (second and third generation)
A result of the guestworkers staying and bringing over their families in the eighties, in a period of decreased employment was: Unemployment grew in the lines of migrant workers. Many did not have a good education and the computer-era put them out of work. Many jobs required a good knowledge of the Dutch language and diplomas were more often a prerequisite (upgrading). The high unemployment of especially young Turks and Moroccans in the Netherlands caused most concern.


"I live in Germany
most of the Germans don't have a heart
those assholes fill me with anger,
I fight against them
not with violence,
but with the music I create
in Turkey I am a German
in Germany I am a stranger
but actually I am
a child of a migrantworker"

Children of migrant workers in Germany try to escape the hopeless situation in Kreuzberg, Berlin. They used to do that by getting rich in the criminal scene. But nowadays an increasing number of young Turks try to escape by their hiphop music. They sing in Turkish and they are very popular in Germany, but also in Turkey.

4. REACTIONS TO MIGRATION

4.1 Reactions of the receiving society on the immigrants
- official reaction
- reaction of the common people

Western Europe
- official reaction
The host countries began in 1967 to explore new policies for the implementation of 'full integration' of the non-returning, legally-admitted, foreign workers.
- reaction of the common people
Especially in the 80s and 90s, a large part of Northern European society reacted hostiley to immigrants. They were blamed for the unemployment that occurred since 1973.

Germany
- reaction of the common people
In neighbourhoods where many Turks lived, the Germans moved away.

France
- official reaction
Between 1945 and 1973 French employers and the government saw migrants solely as economical factors; social aspects received little attention. During the 1960s for example the government did nothing to prepare public opinion for the integration of these new arrivals into French society. In addition, the deplorable conditions in which the entry and installation in France took place gave a very mistaken image to the supposed life-styles of this new population. From 1981 onwards however, Mitterand and the new socialist government tried to alter both the tone and substance of policy. The fate of migrant workers was improved, for example, by giving immigrants broad rights of political association. In addition, on the rightwing side of French politics the 'Front National' secured a firm political base from the early eighties, campaigning on an overtly anti-immigrant ticket.
And on the right side of French politics from the early 1980s, the Front National secured a firm political base from the early eighties, campaigning on an overtly anti-immigrant ticket.
- reaction of the common people
Between 1945 and 1973 people in France reacted more negatively to Africans than to Southern Europeans and other immigrants. As soon as the Africans came, the other "older" immigrants were not considered "foreign" anymore. People also reacted more negative to foreigners after the economic crisis..

Netherlands
- official reaction
The Dutch government reacted during the sixties to the riots between young men with measures such as a permit for wives to come to the Netherlands, but only if they did not have children. The wives could also work in the Dutch industry. The government was very afraid of family-reunion. Employers started to push the government to allow the labourers to stay longer than two years, because this was cheaper.
The fact that the Netherlands did not consider themselves as an immigrant-country between 1945 and 1973 caused a two tracks policy. On one hand, integration was wanted, but on the other hand, the own culture of foreigners should be kept alive. Each nationality received its own policy.
During the early seventies, the Dutch government continued to treat the labourers as temporary migrants.
However, in the second half of that decade the government favoured minority initiatives, such as the foundation of mosques, because mosques would support remigration. At the end of the 70s, the first report appeared which stated that some would stay and that it would be wise to develop a minority-policy.
- reaction of the common people
During the sixties, Italians and Spaniards were seen as competitors on the market of love and happiness by Dutch single men. This led to fights between Dutch young men and Italian and Spanish young men. The Dutch were also jealous, because of all the measures taken for the foreigners like premiums and subsidies for housing and travelling costs. Italians in the Netherlands were often treated unfairly, employers (especially in the mines) could send them away anytime. Because the Italians were strangers in the country and did not know their rights, they often did not protest against these decisions. In 1957 a foundation was started to protect them against this kind of measures: The "Stichting Peregrinus" defended the rights of Roman-Catholic labourers.
In the Netherlands, more labour migrants began to stay longer and many of them wanted to bring their families to the Netherlands. This was only allowed when the labourer had good family housing, causing a run on houses in certain (cheap) areas in the cities. Natives that lived there either moved away or protested against the newcomers. People were afraid foreigners would take their jobs. People who lived in the neighbourhoods resisted the founding of mosques.

Belgium
- reaction of the common people
Italians in Belgium were often welcomed badly between 1945 and 1973. They resided in substandard housing and received hostile reactions from the native inhabitants. There were no special provisions for guestworkers. Moroccans brought Islam to Belgium, against which Belgian people often had prejudices as they did generally against people originating in North-Africa and Turkey.

Nordic countries
- official reaction
By 1975 Sweden had already adopted a plurastic policy and was even granting voting rights in local elections to foreign citizens who had been legally resident in the country for three years.
During the nineties Finnish is the language of instruction in many schools in Sweden and is taught to Finnish children in others. In 1992, the first wholly Finnish publicly financed elementary schools were opened in some minicipalities.

Southern Europe
Italy
- reaction of the common people
At the moment there is an official tolerance in Italy for illegal immigrants and there is mounting pressure to give them more opportunities to integrate.

Greece
- reaction of the common people
At the moment here is an official tolerance in Greece for illegal immigrants and there is mounting pressure to give them more opportunities to integrate.

4.2 Reactions of the immigrants on their new environment
- integration / assimilation
- maintaining their own identity
- differences between first, second and third generation

Western Europe
- maintaining their own identity
The prevailing Turkish pattern reinforced segregation and the option of self-isolation within a network of relatives and friends.
- differences between first, second and third generation
Major generational differences are observable: first-generation women's aspirations were linked primarily to family goals. For the second generation a set of work-related values exercised an important role. Nevertheless for many young Turkish women marriage still remains the most important goal.

Germany
- maintaining their own identity
The patterns of segregation and concentration are indicative of the mechanisms of the housing market and not of the foreigners' wish to live close to people from their home countries. The people who migrated to Germany never abandoned the idea of returning home. This had also a delaying effect upon the processes of integration and assimilation.
- differences between first, second and third generation
Some Turks in Germany integrated by joining unions. In 1987, 48% of Turkish workers were members of a union. Second generation integrated better, third generation integrated fine. 30.000 Turks have their own enterprise. Some Turks married German women. 1980: 3800. There is still some distance between Turks and Germans: Turks who live together in the same neighbourhoods want to keep their own identity and religion. Muslim parents have problems raising their daughters to adapt to their dual role in the largely non-islamic society. Turks that went back to Turkey often started businesses. Turkish criticised the government for sending so many skilled Turks abroad.

France
- integration / assimilation
From 1974 till present was a period in France when the distinction between 'good' and 'bad' immigrants, while not new, was at its most intense: 'demographic interests demanded the assimilation of some immigrants while social peace demanded the exclusion of others. Europeans were the former; North Africans the latter.

Netherlands
- integration / assimilation
Guestworkers in the Netherlands got to know their rights better and learned to defend themselves. Organisations were founded to fight racism. Some of them maintained their religious habits and visited the mosque regularly. Some foreigners were afraid due to occasional outright violence against foreigners. These treats strengthened their desire to some day return to their home country.
European countries -such as the Netherlands and Denmark- where migrant workers are granted wider civic rights, like the right to vote in local elections, display a more harmonious pattern of integration.
- maintaining their own identity
The religious and cultural background of the immigrants from Surinam, Turkey and Morocco differs fundamently from that of the Dutch. Exposure to Dutch language and customs was non-existent for the former before they came to the Netherlands. The muslim Turks, Moroccans and some Surinamese established mosques as soon as they were present in sufficient numbers to support their own religious and cultural centres.

Belgium
- integration / assimilation
Italians and Spaniards integrated pretty well in Belgium after one generation.
- maintaining their own identity
Greek in Belgium integrated less easy. They remained in the same low social position, just like Moroccans and Turcs. Spanish and Greek founded their own organisations and the Greek also churches.

Nordic countries
- integration / assimilation
European countries such as Denmark, where migrant workers are granted wider civic rights like the right to vote in local elections, display a more harmonious pattern of integration.
Over time many Finns have experienced upward social mobility, both with regard to their jobs and to the area in which they live. As apartment or house owners, many Finnish immigrants became well-integrated settlers in Sweden. For example, over a hundred Finnish born politicians are elected to local assemblies and a few are even members of parliament.
Finns are spread all over Sweden and everywhere assimilation is rapid and strong. Intermarriage is legion and the Finnish language is only actively transferred to the second generation when both parents are Finnish-speaking.
- maintaining their own identity
On arrival between 1960 and 1985 most Finnish migrants in Sweden intend to stay for only a short period. In fact many postpone a planned return once or twice before fnally realizing that they have in fact already settled. This prolonged period of indecision delays their integration and diminishes their incentive to learn the language and to plan for the future.

IN SHORT
A large stream of migrants came to Northern Europe searching for work. Especially after 1960, economic growth had caused an enormous labour shortage in the Western-European countries, attracting guestworkers (primarily single young men) from Southern-European and North African countries to do the jobs. For the first time in history, a large "coloured" population came to Europe.
Due to the economic recession many of the guestworkers that had came to Western countries had to make a decision: they could either go back to their homecountry or stay in the Western country they were occupying and send for their families. Many decided to stay because the situation at home was not any better than before and at least in the West they had rights in the social security system. This caused a stream of family-reunion migration towards the Western countries. A smaller group however decided to return, forming a smaller stream in the reverse direction.

 
 

Dr. Marlou Schrover