During the War

 
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1 Description of the migration movement
2 Causes of migration
3 Consequences of migration
4 Reactions on migration

1. DESCRIPTION OF THE MIGRATION MOVEMENT

1.1 Who were they and where did they come from: ethnic origin, geographical background, religion, adults, men or women, special qualities?

* 1942 - 1945: 5.2 million Jews and 200.000 - 400.000 Gypsies were moved from the areas that were occupied by Germany to camps in Germany and Poland.
* 1940: Increasing numbers of Jews from all European countries, North Africa and the Near East travelled to Palestine. This migration had begun as early as 1882, but accelerated in the 1940s. Many Jews came from Poland, Romania, Morocco, Iraq and the Soviet Union especially. In 1966 there were 2.6 million Jews residing in Israel compared to 300.000 Palestinians.
* 1940 - 1945: Belgians, French, Italians, Dutch, Russians and Poles were moved to labour camps in Germany or imprisoned.

Western Europe
UK
Germany

* 1930s and early 40s: 20.000 Jews left Germany and Austria while 10.000 Jews left Eastern Europe to go to the Netherlands. They later moved on to the United States or to countries that had remained neutral during WWII. {Con}
France
Netherlands
* 1940: Thousands of Dutch people left the Netherlands and went to England. {Con}
Belgium
Nordic countries

Eastern Europe

* 1930s and early 40s: 20.000 Jews left Germany and Austria and 10.000 Jews left Eastern Europe and went to the Netherlands. Later they moved to United States or countries that remained neutral in WWII. {Con}
* 1939 - 1945: Some of the Gypsies and most of the Jewish population in Europe (especially in Poland, Central Europe and the Balkans) were wiped out after the genocide in Germany.
Poland
* 1939: As a result of the German-Russian pact some of the Polish deportees were Jewish. (Survey, 151)
* 1941-1945: Foreigners in employment in Germany compromising deportees (mainly from eastern Europe), prisoners of war and the inmates of concentration camps, were made to serve the national socialist war economy. (Survey, 134)
Russia
* 1943 - ...: In Russia there were deportations of millions of people to work camps. 1943: all Karatsjajen were deported out of their homelands. 1944 Tsjetsjenes and Ingoesji were deported. 1944 Balkares were deported far from their own republic.

North America
United States

* 1942 - 1945: American soldiers went to England. {Cath}
Canada

1.2 How did they travel: transport, circumstances of travelling?

1.3 When?

1.4 How many?

* 1942 - 1945: 5.2 million Jews and 200.000 - 400.000 Gypsies were moved.
* 1940-1945: As a result the net increase of Jewish refugees during the war has been estimated at no more than 10,000. (Survey, 150)

Western Europe
UK
Germany

* 1930-1942: The total number of Jews that left Germany was 300.000. {Con}
* In August 1944, the Reich employment knew a total of 7,8 million foreign civilian workers and prisoners of war and, in addition, about 1 million mostly foreign concentration camp prisoners. Nearly 30 per cent of all employed persons in Germany were foreigners. (Survey, 134)
France
Netherlands
Belgium
Nordic countries

Eastern Europe
Poland
Russia

* 1942: In the year following the German attack, a report by Jewish agencies calculated that the SU contained between 200,000 and 350,000 Jewish refugees. A figure of between 50,000 and 150,000 has been offered for Jewish internees incarcerated in Soviet camps during the war. The conditions endured by all these people defy description.

1.5 Permanent or temporary?
Western Europe
UK, Germany, France
Netherlands

* 1940: Dutch refugees stayed in England temporary. {Con}
Belgium, Nordic countries

North America
United States:

* 1942 - 1945: American soldiers went to England only temporary. {Cath}
Canada

1.6 Where did they go to and where did they stay?

* 1940: From all European countries and from North Africa and the Near East more and more Jews went to Palestine.

Western Europe
UK, Germany
France

* 1940 -1945: To Germany: prisoners of war (1.5 million French), workers, 7-8 million concentration camp prisoners (especially Jews 5-6 million). Slavs to the East.
Netherlands, Belgium, Nordic countries

Eastern Europe
Poland

* 1940-1945: Polish prisoners of war (1 million) were deported to Siberia.
Russia
* 1940-1945: Russian prisoners of war were starved to death. Gypsies were deported and killed.
* 1941-1945: In the USSR, one possible escape route from the Germans lay in moving eastwards. (Survey, 151)

2. CAUSES OF MIGRATION

2.1 Circumstances that favoured migration
Western Europe
UK
Germany

* 1939-1941: Following the outbreak of hostilities in September 1939, the Germans at first allowed the emigration of Jews through the agency of the Reich Central Bureau for Jewish emigration. (Survey, 150)
France
Netherlands
* 1940: The Dutch refugees had the opportunity to escape to a country that was not under the influence of Nazi-Germany. {Con}
Belgium
Nordic countries

Eastern Europe
Poland
Russia

* 1941-1945: Some movements of Jews occurred spontaneously: in other cases it reflected the dictate of the Soviet state. (Survey, 151)

2.2 Circumstances that hindered migration

* 1940-1945: Those Jews who attempted to emigrate in order to escape from 'this season in hell' continued to find restrictions in potential places of refuge. (Survey, 150)
* 1941-1945: In August, the emigration of Jews from German-occupied territory was forbidden. On 23 October 1941, an order banned all further emigration from the Reich. (Survey, 150)

2.3 Direct causes of migration

* 1942 - 1945: Jews and Gypsies were brought to camps by Germans to be killed there as a result of Nazi race policy.

Western Europe
UK
Germany

* 1940: Hitler wanted to send the Slavs back to the East to make room for German colonists.
France
Netherlands
* 1940: The Germans invaded the Netherlands, this caused the migration of some Dutch refugees to England. {Con}
Belgium
Nordic countries

Eastern Europe
Poland

* 1939: One consequence of the Nazi-Soviet pact of August 1939 was the deportation of Poles from eastern Poland to Soviet labour camps. (Survey, 151)
Russia
* 1941: In 1941 the Soviet Union reacted to the German attack by deporting nearly all German immigrants living in the western part of the SU to Siberia, central Asia and Kazakhstan. (Survey, 131)
* 1941-1945: The German invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941 brought in its wake the extermination programme. (survey,151)

3. CONSEQUENCES OF MIGRATION

3.1 Short term consequences
Positive consequences
- for the migrants (first generation)
- for their new environment / native born
- for the country they left

Western Europe
UK, Germany, France, Netherlands
Belgium
- for their new environment / native born

* 1940: Many anti-fascists that had come to Belgium joined the resistance there. Moroccans fought against the Germans. {Mor}
Nordic countries

Negative consequences
- for the migrants (first generation)
- for their new environment / native born
- for the country they left

3.2 Long term consequences
Positive consequences
- for the migrants (second and third generation)
- for their new environment
- for they country they left

Negative consequences
- for the migrants (second and third generation)
- for their new environment
- for they country they left

4. REACTIONS ON MIGRATION

4.1 Reactions of the receiving society on the immigrants
- official reaction
- reaction of the common people

Western Europe
- reaction of the common people

* 1942 - 1945: The Americans were very welcome. They were the liberators of Europe. {Cath}
UK
- official reaction
* 1940: In England, Germans and Italians were no longer respected foreigners. 22.000 Germans were brought to camps and 4.300 Italians. 8.000 unwanted aliens were send to Australia and Canada. {Cath}
- official reaction
* 1940-1945: The British government halted immigration from Germany and German-occupied territory immediately upon the outbreak of war. (Survey, 150)
Germany, France, Netherlands, Belgium, Nordic countries

4.2 Reactions of the immigrants on their new environment
- integration / assimilation
- maintaining their own identity
- differences between first, second and third generation

Western Europe
UK
- maintaining their own identity

* 1940 - 1945: England: Russian Jews that were already in England for a while, did not want to serve in the army, because the English army was an ally of the Soviet Union. These Jews had escaped the politics of the Soviet Union and the Terror of Stalin. {Cath}
Germany, France, Netherlands, Belgium, Nordic countries  

 

 

Dr. Marlou Schrover