Migration as a result of the Great War

 
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1 Description of the migration movement
2 Causes of migration
3 Consequences of migration
4 Reactions on migration

1. DESCRIPTION OF THE MIGRATION MOVEMENT

1.1 Who were they and where did they come from: ethnic origin, geographical background, religion, adults, men or women, special qualities?

* 1919 - 1923: Germans left the lost territories, Ukraine, Czechoslovakia and Alsace - Lorraine.

Western Europe
Germany

* 1918 - 1940: German maidservants went to the Netherlands. {Luc}
UK, France, Netherlands, Belgium, Nordic countries

Southern Europe
Spain, Portugal Italy

* The 1920s: France needed foreign labourers for the reconstruction of the nation. Workers were recruited throughout Europe, though principally in Poland and Italy due to existing political links which France had forged with these two countries.
Greece
* 1919 - 1923: Turks left Greece to go to Turkey.
* 1919 - 1923: Bulgarians left Greece and Slovakia.

Eastern Europe
Poland

* 1920s: France needed foreign labourers for the reconstruction of the nation. Workers were recruited throughout Europe, though principally in Poland and Italy due to existing political links which France had forged with these two countries.
Romania
* 1919 - 1923: Hungarians left Rumania and Slovakia
Russia
* 1917: Criminals and political prisoners were moved to Siberia. Military colonisation took place.
* 1917-1925: The large majority of the Russian emigrants of this period belonged to the upper social groups - the nobility, prosperous entrepreneurs, merchants, regular servicemen and intellectuals. (Survey, 492)
* 1919 - 1923: Poles left the Soviet Union.
* 1919 - 1923: People from the Baltic States left the Soviet Union.
* 1919 - 1923: Russians left Soviet Union to go to Western Europe, the United States, Canada and the far East.

Balkan

* 1919 - 1923: Greek left Asia Minor to go to Greece.
* 1919 - 1923: Assyro-Chaldenes left Asia Minor.
Turkey:
* 1919 - 1923: Armenians left Turkey to go to the Caucasus, Lebanon, United States and France.

1.2 How did they travel: transport, circumstances of travelling?

1.3 When?
Eastern Europe
Poland
Russia:

* 1917: Russia after 1917: migration towards Siberia continued.

1.4 How many?
Southern Europe
Spain, Portugal, Italy
Greece

* 1923: 500.000 Turks went from Greece to Turkey

Balkan
Turkey

* 1923: 1.3 million Greek went from Turkey to Greece.

1.5 Permanent or temporary?
Western Europe
UK
Germany
France

* 1917: The labourers who went to France to work in the war-industry only stayed temporarily. They returned after the war. {Leq}
Netherlands, Belgium, Nordic countries

1.6 Where did they go to and where did they stay?
Eastern Europe
Poland
Russia

* 1919 - 1923: Russians left Soviet Union to go to Western Europe, the United States, Canada and the far East.
* 1917-1925: The Russian emigrants went to Paris, Prague, Berlin and various other European cities. Smaller numbers went to the USA, China and several Latin American countries. (Survey, 492)

2. CAUSES OF MIGRATION

2.1 Circumstances that favoured migration
Western Europe
UK
Germany

* 1918 - 1945: The neutrality of the Netherlands in WWI and the tolerance favoured the migration of German refugees towards this country. {Luc}
* In the Weimar Republic, the admission of foreigners was no longer determined by the anti-Polish 'policy of repulsio', but by the economic reasoning of a labour market policy. (Survey, 134)
France
* The First World War cut dwindling labour force still further. 1,5 million French soldiers were killed and a similar number were left with permanent injuries. In the 1920s, the French nation had to be reconstructed. In the space of a few years, several million immigrants had been recruited into industry and agriculture. (Survey, 143)

Netherlands
Belgium
Nordic countries

Southern Europe
Spain

* 1917: France signed treaties with Spain, Italy, Portugal and Greece to recruit labourers for the war-industry. {Leq}
* 1917-.......: Italians and Spaniards were stimulated to migrate by the economic and political situation in their country. {Leq}
Portugal
* 1917: France signed treaties with Spain, Italy, Portugal and Greece to recruit labourers for the war-industry. {Leq}
Italy
* 1917: France signed treaties with Spain, Italy, Portugal and Greece to recruit labourers for the war-industry. {Leq}
* 1917-.......: Italians and Spaniards were stimulated to migrate by the economic and political situation in their country. {Leq}
Greece
* 1917: France signed treaties with Spain, Italy, Portugal and Greece to recruit labourers for the war-industry. {Leq}

2.2 Circumstances that hindered migration

* 1918-..: Following the First World War many countries erected immigration barriers. (Survey, 149)
* 1918-1940: The combination of resurgent nationalism, economic dislocation and the long-present fear of foreign radicalism, exacerbated by the success of the Bolshevik Revolution, created higher barriers, both formal and informal, against immigration of any kind in most countries of settlement. The USA led the way. (Survey, 39)
* 1918-1940: Most of the nations of settlement, except the USA, kept their doors somewhat open to Europeans during the 1920s, but the world wide depression of the 1930s caused barriers to go up everywhere. (Survey, 39)

2.3 Direct causes of migration
Western Europe
UK
Germany
France

* 1920s: This phase of immigration of labourers into France was brought to an end by the crisis of the 1930s, at which time many foreigners were sent back to their countries. (Survey, 143)
Netherlands Belgium and Nordic countries

Southern Europe
Spain and Portugal
Italy

* 1922: Italian and other miners went to Belgium to earn money in the mines that needed the labourers badly. {Mor}
Greece
* 1919 - 1923: Greek left Asia Minor and Turks left Greece as a result of a deal these two countries made.

Eastern Europe
Poland
Hungary

* 1918-...: With the collapse of Bela Kun's government the so-called White Terror exacted a fearful revenge on Hungary's Jews. The anti-Semitic legislation of 1920,1938 and 1939, which restricted the civil rights of Jews, encouraged some westward migration. (Survey, 149)
Russia
* 1917-1925: From the civil war till the mid-1920s 1.5 million persons left Russia to escape communist repression, chaos, starvation and war. (Survey, 492)

Balkan

* 1919 - 1923: Assyro-Chaldeans left Asia Minor because their people had been murdered there during WWI.
Turkey
* 1919 - 1923: Armenians left Turkey because they did not feel safe anymore after the genocide performed on Armenians in 1915 and 1916.
* 1919 - 1923: Greek left Asia Minor and Turks left Greece as a result of a deal these two countries made.

3. CONSEQUENCES OF MIGRATION

3.1 Short term consequences
Positive consequences
- for the migrants (first generation)
- for their new environment / native born
- for the country they left

Negative consequences
- for the migrants (first generation)
- for their new environment / native born
- for the country they left
- for their new environment
- for the country they left

3.2 Long term consequences
Positive consequences
- for the migrants (second and third generation)
- for their new environment
- for the country they left

Negative consequences
- for the migrants (second and third generation)

4. REACTIONS ON MIGRATION

4.1 Reactions of the receiving society on the immigrants
- official reaction
- reaction of the common people

Western Europe
UK
- official reaction

* 1914: Alien Restriction Act: end of laissez-faire period. 1919: Many race riots because of unemployment due to the end of the war. Chinese got many aggressive reactions too, because they were accused of causing the drug trade.
Germany, France, Netherlands, Belgium, Nordic countries

4.2 Reactions of the immigrants on their new environment
- integration / assimilation
- maintaining their own identity
- differences between first, second and third generation

Western Europe
UK: - maintaining their own identity

* 1918: Africans in England got a lot more self-confidence after WWI, because of activities for Pan-Africanism. In 1918, students and businessmen founded the African Progression Union. Africans fought for freedom.
Germany
France: - integration / assimilation
* the 1920s: For the immigrant workers who remained in France, the period between 1930 and 1950 was a decisive one in terms of integration into French society. (Survey, 143)

- maintaining their own identity
* 1917 - ....: In France, most immigrants lived with people of their own nationality in one neighbourhood so that they had little contact with the native population. Many of the migrants eventually wanted to return home, but this wish did not come true for all of them. {Leq}
Netherlands  

 

 

Dr. Marlou Schrover