Migration to Other Parts of the World

 
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1 Description of the migration movement
2 Causes of migration
3 Consequences of migration
4 Reactions on migration

1. DESCRIPTION OF THE MIGRATION MOVEMENT

1.1 Who were they and where did they come from: ethnic origin, geographical background, religion, adults, men or women, special qualities?
Western Europe
UK

* 1820: English colonists settled in the Southern area of Africa.
* 1788 - 1868: 162.000 Condemned persons were send to Sydney and Tasmania by England and Ireland.
Germany
* 1790: Germans, both condemned persons and voluntary migrants, went to Australia. German scientists, farmers and goldseekers went to New Zealand. {Sieny}
* 19th century: Foreigners were asked to come to Russia, especially the areas near the Black Sea and the Volga. From Germany all kinds of religious minorities went to these areas. Mennonites, Lutherans, Chilliasts, Piėtists.
France
Netherlands
* 1834-1839: Dutch colonist moved from 1834 - 1839 to the North to the Orange Free State and the Transvaal.
Belgium, Nordic countries

Southern Europe
Spain, Portugal
Italy

* 1851: Italians went to Australia.
Greece
* 1851: Greek went to Australia.

1.2 How did they travel: transport, circumstances of travelling?

1.3 When?
Eastern Europe
Poland
Russia

* End 19th century: The big migrations to Siberia started.

1.4 How many?

* 1820 - 1924: At least 3 million people went to Australia and New Zealand
* 1911: North Africa: 750.000 Europeans in Algeria.

Western Europe
UK
* 1900 - 1914: South Africa: over one million English and Boers.
Germany
France
* 1911: 45.000 French lived in Tunisia.
Netherlands
Belgium
Nordic countries

Southern Europe
Spain
Portugal
Italy

* 1900-1914: 8 million Italians left Italy, 3 million remained in Europe.
* 1911: 100.000 Italians lived in Tunisia
Greece

Eastern Europe
Poland
Russia

* 1906 - ...: Russians to Siberia: between 1906 and 1911: 2.6 million. About 100.000 - 200.000 people went there every year before 1905, 500.000 by 1907 and 750.000 in 1908. After that the number decreased again to 300.000 in 1914. Siberia: 10 million colonists in 1914. Every year about 500.000 people arrived here.

Oceania
Australia

* In 1858 a total of 500.000 gold seekers was in Australia. Between 1876 - 1890 each year 38.000 people arrived. In 1891 Australia had 3.24 million inhabitants. After 1907: More and more immigrants came from Europe, 1912 record: 92.000.
New Zealand

1.5 Permanent or temporary?

1.6 Where did they go to and where did they stay?

* 19th century: Some Europeans went to Africa: especially South Africa, Algeria, Zimbabwe and Kenya.

Western Europe
UK

* 1890 - ...: Australia and New Zealand attracted English and other European people.
Germany, France, Netherlands, Belgium, Nordic countries

Southern Europe
Spain

* 19th century: Day-labourers moved around Spain and Italy. Maybe they also went to bordering countries??
Portugal
Italy
* 19th century: Day-labourers moved around Spain and Italy. Maybe they also went to bordering countries??
* About 1900: Italians went to France.
Greece
* About 1900: Greek went to the northern part of Austria-Hungary.

Eastern Europe

* About 1900: Slovenians and Serbs went to the northern part of Austria-Hungary.
Poland
* About 1900: Poles and Czechs went to Germany.
Russia
* 19th century: Foreigners were asked to come to Russia, especially the areas near the Black Sea and the Volga.

2. CAUSES OF MIGRATION

2.1 Circumstances that favoured migration

* 19th century: From 1838 onwards, the migration to Australia was stimulated by subsidy from the government of the home country. The abolition of the transfer of prisoners to this country also stimulated migration.

Western Europe
UK

* 1914-1925: The First World War evoked a strong feeling of empire solidarity. When peace returned, many in Britain were restless and the idea of emigration was attractive. The Lloyd George government responded with the Empire Settlement Act of 1922 to aid 'settlement in, or migration to any part of His Majesty's Overseas Dominions by assistance with passages, initial allowances, training or otherwise. (Survey, 18)
Germany, France, Netherlands, Belgium, Nordic countries

Oceania
Australia

* 1940-1960: During the Second World War 95,561 Australian casualties were suffered. This experience convinced Australian leaders of all parties that a substantial increase in population was necessary. They planned a more positive immigration policy. (Survey, 18)
New Zealand

2.2 Circumstances that hindered migration

Western Europe
UK

* 19th century: South Africa did not attract British emigrants. (Survey, 17)
Germany
* 19th century: German colonies in Africa and the Pacific were completely unsuitable for settlement. (Survey, 132)
France, Netherlands, Belgium, Nordic countries

2.3 Direct causes of migration

* 1840 - ...: The enormous migration towards America, Australia etc. was caused by demographic and economic reasons.
* 1851: The discovery of gold in a part of Australia caused a wave of immigrants. Mostly white people moved to Australia, that was part of the policy until 1973.

Southern Europe
Spain

* 19th century: Day-labourers moved around Spain and Italy; because there were too much people, day-labourers did not have work for a part of the year.
Portugal
Italy
* 19th century: Day-labourers moved around Spain and Italy; because there were too much people, day-labourers did not have work for a part of the year.
Greece

Eastern Europe
Poland
Russia

* 19th century: Russians left Russian countryside, some of them went to Siberia, because the population growth caused misery, land was split up further and further.

Africa
North Africa, West Africa, East Africa

South Africa

* 1834 - 1839: The English colonists entering the area in 1820 caused the migration of "Boers" from the cape-colony to the North. They abolished slavery and the "Boers" left out of protest against this measure and against the English interference.

3. CONSEQUENCES OF MIGRATION

3.1 Short term consequences
Positive consequences
- for the migrants (first generation)
- for their new environment / native born
- for the country they left

Negative consequences
- for the migrants (first generation)
- for their new environment / native born
- for the country they left

Africa
North Africa, West Africa, East Africa
South Africa
- for their new environment / native born

* 1834 - 1839: The English colonist that entered the area in 1820 caused the migration of "Boers" from the cape-colony to the North. They abolished slavery and the "Boers" left out of protest against this measure and against the English interference.
- for their new environment / native born
* 1834-1839: Dutch colonist moved from 1834 - 1839 to the North to the Orange Free State and the Transvaal. The Dutch chased away the Zulus, who spread across South Africa.

3.2 Long term consequences
Positive consequences
- for the migrants (second and third generation)
- for their new environment
- for the country they left

Negative consequences
- for the migrants (second and third generation)
- for their new environment
- for the country they left

4. REACTIONS ON MIGRATION

4.1 Reactions of the receiving society on the immigrants
- official reaction
- reaction of the common people.

4.2 Reactions of the immigrants on their new environment
- integration / assimilation
- maintaining their own identity
- differences between first, second and third generation

Western Europe
UK
- maintaining their own identity

* 1914-1918: When war broke out in Europe in 1914, the dominions all pledged support to Britain: in many ways they came of age on the battlefield. (Survey, 17)
Germany, France, Netherlands, Belgium, Nordic countries

IN SHORT

World trade and politics became increasingly influential in the lives of ordinary people. The demographic revolution and enormous population growth caused wandering paupers, large numbers of circularly migrating harvesters and emigration especially to America. Governments were afraid of social unrest and therefore hoped to stimulate emigration.

 

 

Dr. Marlou Schrover