Migration to Latin America

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1 Description of the migration movement
2 Causes of migration
3 Consequences of migration
4 Reactions on migration

1. DESCRIPTION OF THE MIGRATION MOVEMENT

1.1 Who were they and where did they come from: ethnic origin, geographical background, religion, adults, men or women, special qualities?

* 19th- 20th century: Most of the immigrants that went to South America were European.

Western Europe

Germany
* 19th- 20th century: Some immigrants came from Germany.
UK, France, Netherlands, Belgium, Nordic countries

Southern Europe
Spain

* 1600-1900: Southern Spain - Andalusia (especially Seville and its hinterland) - consistently provided the largest number of emigrants of any single region.)
* 1600-1900: Spanish society in the Indies reflect a wide socio-economic representation in the settlement of the New World: only the extremes of Spanish society - the highest nobles who commanded great wealth and resources, and the true paupers scarcely participated in the movement.
* 1850-1920: Spaniards moving to Argentina were poor, rural and looking for a permanent place for resettlement. (Survey, 216)
* 19th- 20th century: Especially emigrants from Spain went to South America. Portugal
* 1850-1900: The first group Portuguese (8-11%) composed of adolescents and young adults who went to join relatives or 'friends' to work in trade activities. This group departed almost exclusively from the northern regions of Portugal. The second group (ca. 10%) is relatively older, and is formed by those that had some sort of property or skill, and could easily find a niche in the expanding Brazilian urban economy. The third group (ca. 80%) is made up of those with no skills, who entered the Brazilian unskilled labour market.
* 19th- 20th century: Especially emigrants from Portugal went to South America.
Italy
* 1857-1924: More than half of the Italians in Argentina came from central or northern districts. This provided a broad spectrum of occupational, skill and rural-urban differences. (Survey, 216)
* 19th- 20th century: Especially emigrants from Italy went to South America.
Greece

Africa
North Africa
West Africa

* 19th - 20th century: About 2 million slaves and contract labourers were brought from Africa to South America. They lived especially in Brazil, the Caribbean, and the coasts of Columbia and Venezuela.
East Africa
South Africa
* 1832 - ... : Migration of contract labourers from China and India towards the colonies of England and France.

1.2 How did they travel: transport, circumstances of travelling?
 

* 1600-1900: People commonly went to the Indies accompanied by relatives or expecting to join them. (Survey, 30)

1.3 When?
 

* 1870: People started moving towards Brazil.

Western Europe
Germany

* 1820-1950: The agricultural colonisation movement, which involved mostly German- and Italian -speaking European farmers began in the 1820s and continued on a modest scale well into the 20th century. (Survey, 208)
UK, France, Belgium, Nordic countries

Southern Europe
Spain

* About 1900: Emigrants from Spain went to Brazil and Argentina, especially after 1905.
Portugal
* About 1900: Emigrants Portugal went to Brazil and Argentina, especially after 1905.
Italy
* About 1900: Emigrants from Spain and Portugal went to Brazil and Argentina, especially after 1905 and some Italians and Germans.
* 1820-1950: The agricultural colonisation movement, which involved mostly German- and Italian -speaking European farmers began in the 1820s and continued on a modest scale well into the 20th century. (Survey, 208)
Greece

1.4 How many?
 

* 1820 - 1924: 6 Million Europeans went to South America.

Western Europe
France

* 1857-1924: long-run migratory trends in Argentina from 1857 to 1924 reveal that 4.1% came from France.
UK, Germany, Netherlands, Nordic countries

Southern Europe
Spain

* 1857-1924: Overall, long-run migratory trends in Argentina from 1857 to 1924 reveal that 32.5% came from Spain.
* 1880-1900: The Spaniards were the third group in importance. (Survey, 209)
Portugal
In this period some 400,000 Portuguese came to Brazil.
Italy
* 1857-1924: Overall, long-run migratory trends in Argentina from 1857 to 1924 reveal that 47.5 % came from Italy.
* 1880-1900: In this period some 800,000 Italians came to Brazil
Greece

Eastern Europe
Poland
Russia

* 1857-1924: Overall, long run migratory trends in Argentina from 1857 to 1924 reveal that 3.1% came from Russia. (Survey, 215)

South America
Argentina

* 1885: Large immigration in Argentine started, 48.000 in 1873 - 219.000 in 1889. Total of immigrants in 1885 was 175.000, 253.000 in 1906 and 323.000 in 1912. Total between 1885 and 1960 was 5 million.
Brazil
* 1880-1900: between 1880-1900 1.6 million Europeans arrived in Brazil (Survey, 209)
* 1889-1900: From 1889 to 1900 some 878,000 immigrants arrived in Sâo Paulo alone, of which three-quarter were subsidised. (Survey, 208)
* 1870 - 1960: 4.5 million people came to Brazil.
* Until 1920 27.939 Japanese came to Brazil, after 1930 101.666 Japanese came.
Mexico

Africa

* 19th - 20th century: About 2 million slaves were brought from Africa to South America.
North Africa, West Africa, South Africa

1.5 Permanent or temporary?

* 1850-1900: Extremely high rates of mortality and subsidised returns from Brazil, either by indigence or extreme sickness, are repeatedly referred to in contemporary sources. (Survey, 94)

Southern Europe
Spain

* 1600-1900: 10% of the Spanish immigrants in the Indies returned to their homestead temporary. Another 10% returned to stay. (Survey, 31)
* 1880-1900: Among all these migrants there was also return and intra-American out-migration. In this the Italians and the Spaniards stand out as the most mobile. The overall return rate is estimated at 36% (Survey, 209)
Portugal
Italy
* 1880-1900: Among all these migrants there was also return and intra-American out-migration. In this the Italians and the Spaniards stand out as the most mobile. The overall return rate is estimated at 36% (Survey, 209)
* 1850-1920: A very high percentage of migrants did not remain in Argentina permanently. Italians returned most. Many Italians saw Argentina as a temporary sojourn to earn a small fortune and bolster the livelihood of extended family networks in Italy. The bulk of incoming timed their arrival to coincide with the beginning of the harvest and their departure with the end of the harvest. These migrants earned the label ‘golondrinas’. (Survey, 216)
Greece

South America
Brazil

* 1888-1900: Fearing these subsidised immigrants might become temporary migrants, as occurred with the golondrina migration of European males to Argentina, the planters supported only family migration. (Survey, 208)
Mexico, Argentina

1.6 Where did they go to and where did they stay?
Western Europe

UK

* 1832 - ... : Migration of contract labourers from China and India towards the colonies of England and France in South America, Africa and Asia.
Germany
* 1750 - 1815: Germans went to Bolivia, Brazil and Chilli.
France
* 1832 - ... : Migration of contract labourers from China and India towards the colonies of England and France in South America, Africa and Asia.,
Netherlands, Belgium, Nordic countries

Southern Europe
Spain

* 16th century: Since the conquest of Mexico (1521) and Peru (1532) these two regions became the major centres of Spanish colonisation in the Americas and the principal destinations of emigrants in the 16th century. (Survey, 28)
* 1750-1900: In the latter part of the 18th century rapidly developing centres such as Buenos Aires, Havana and Caracas began to attract substantial numbers of Spanish migrants.
Portugal
* 19th century: For the overwhelming majority of the Portuguese the preferred choice of destination was Brazil.
Italy, Greece

2. CAUSES OF MIGRATION

2.1 Circumstances that favoured migration

* 1888-1900: Brazilian planters subsidised European families only, because they want them to stay in Brazil.
* 1880-1950: From the final abolition of slavery in the decade of the 1880s until the 1930s Brazil was a major recipient of European and Asian immigrant labour, again entering the international labour market in the immediate aftermath of the Second World War.

Southern Europe
Spain

* 1600-1900: Since most returnees went back to their places of origin in Spain, return migration played a crucial role in stimulating the subsequent departure of their relatives and fellow townspeople, and in maintaining connections with people and events in the Indies.
Portugal
* 1850-1900: After the mid-nineteenth century, nationalistic spirits had already calmed down and the flow to Brazil begun to regain strength. This new strength is said to have been decreased by the existence of migratory channels opened up in the past, the existence of a large Portuguese community and by the use of a common language.
* 1880s: Brazil's attraction increased with the migrant's age and skills and with the migrant's previous personnel or familial migratory experience.
Italy, Greece

South America
Argentina
Brazil

* 1880-1920: The colon system (since the late 1880s): passage to the New World was fully paid for by the Brazilian state and federal governments, and a complex wage and piece work payment system was arranged for the immigrant families who totally replaced slaves in coffee after 1888.
Mexico

2.2 Circumstances that hindered migration
Southern Europe

Spain
Portugal

* 1822: The Brazilian Declaration of Independence in 1822 was followed by an anti-Portuguese sentiment that was vividly, and sometimes violently, expressed against the Portuguese community. These events restrained, at least for a while, potential migrants and even promoted a significant number of returns.
Italy, Greece

South America
Argentina Mexico
Brazil

* 1880s: Brazil was losing ground relative to the USA, since departures to Brazil had been consistently decreasing since the 1880s)

2.3 Direct causes of migration

Western Europe
Germany

* 1750 - 1815: Germans went to Brazil and Chilli after a famine in Germany. {Sieny}
UK, France, Netherlands, Belgium, Nordic countries

Southern Europe
Spain

* 1600-1900: Emigration to the Indies functioned for the Spanish as a life-stage and career choice that took people away from home, temporarily or permanently, to places offering greater economic opportunities and greater social flexibility as well. (Survey, 30)
* 1850-1920: Several factors account for the exodus from Spain to Argentina: - rising demographic pressure, - Spain faced a veritable agrarian revolution, - an industrial revolution swept older proto-industrial communities, especially the larger towns in Catalonia and the Basque region.
Portugal
* 1850-1900: It was pulled by the growing labour needs of the Brazilian economy and by the knowledge, in Portugal, of the existence of economic opportunities, particularly in retail trade. (Survey, 93)
Italy
* 1876-1945: The massive emigration to Brazil from northeastern Italy represented the stark face of this new emigration, a desperate flight from hunger. (Survey, 118)
Greece

South America
Argentina
Brazil

* 1890-1920: In the decade after abolition the coffee output was tripled. There was a parallel growth in urban centres. This led to major increases in spontaneous European immigration to this frontier zone. (Survey, 208)
Mexico

3. CONSEQUENCES OF MIGRATION

3.1 Short term consequences
Positive consequences

- for the migrants (first generation)
- for their new environment / native born
- for the country they left

Negative consequences
- for the migrants (first generation)
- for their new environment / native born
- for the country they left

3.2 Long term consequences
Positive consequences

- for the migrants (second and third generation)
- for their new environment
- for the country they left

South America
- for their new environment

* 18th century: A result of the enormous forced migration of black people from Africa to Southern America and the Caribbean is the large amount of black people and mixed mulattos in South America. (Brazil 50%)
- for their new environment
* 1832 - ...: A result of the immigration of Chinese and Indian contract labourers to the colonies in South America is the large amount of Indian people and mestizs that live there nowadays. Especially in Mexico, Central America, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Paraguay.
Argentina, Brazil, Mexico

Negative consequences
- for the migrants (second and third generation)
- for their new environment
- for the country they left

4. REACTIONS ON MIGRATION

4.1 Reactions of the receiving society on immigrants
- official reaction
- reaction of the common people

4.2 Reactions of the immigrants on their new environment
- integration / assimilation
- maintaining their own identity
- differences between first, second and third generation

South America
Argentina
- integration / assimilation

* 1850-1920: Immigrants in Argentina took an important part in the early formation of the Argentine labour movement. The first were mutual-aid societies bearing a more plebeian stamp- usually gathering workers of a particular trade to contribute to a fund to support temporary employment, health care or burial services. (Survey, 218)
Brazil
- maintaining their own identity
* 1880-1950: Intermarriage rates with Brazilian native-born were low for all groups, though most extreme for the Japanese. (Survey, 213)
- maintaining their own identity
* 1880-1960: The Portuguese and Italians stand out in the importance of their hospitals, educational institutions and benevolent societies. Though even for these communities, the end of steady immigration after 1920 and the increasing intermarriage with other ethnic groups and native-born diluted their importance within Brazilian society by the 1960s. (Survey, 213)
- differences between first, second and third generation
* 1880-1950: Even children of immigrants married in their own social group.
Mexico  

 

 

Dr. Marlou Schrover