Demographic Revolution: General

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1 Description of the migration movement
2 Causes of migration
3 Consequences of migration
4 Reactions on migration


Between the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815 and the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, two trends underwrote dramatic shifts in migratory patterns. First, an unprecedented surge of population outstripped the rate of growth that had begun in the 1750-1800 period, when the number of western Europeans had increased by 34 per cent. Between 1800 and 1850, the population increased by 42 per cent, and by a further 76 per cent by 1914. France stayed behind.

Secondly, rural economies suffered while urban economies grew. Crop failures, most notably the potato famine of the ‘hungry forties’ produced pernicious food shortages and undercut rural workers. By contrast, urban economies expanded with the growth of mechanised industries. The demand for urban manufacturing workers, construction labourers, shopkeepers and servants reached unprecedented heights.

These shifts in the population and economies of Western Europe affected migration patterns in three waves, adding new itineraries to pre-existing patterns of local and circular movement. Firstly, in the years before the mature industrial economy provided adequate employment, it generated massive insecurity and temporary migration. Secondly, migration helped generate city growth and urbanisation, both of which transformed settlement patterns. As health conditions improved cities increasingly generated their own population, though in France, Italy and Germany high urban mortality persisted so that migration remained central to urbanisation. Finally, people moved farther than before as regional systems became overlaid with international systems.

In the 19th century, new circular migration systems developed at the expense of long standing local and circular patterns. Increased commercial agricultural production (sugar beets and potatoes) demanded teams of short-term workers rather than year-round farm servants. New machinery played a role: those who operated the widely used treshing machine performed in a few days one of the primary winter tasks of farm servants.

The migrant agricultural labour force was an international one (for example, the Irish harvested English wheat). Similar teams of workers constructed the roads, railroad beds and tunnels as part of the new transport infrastructure that was coming into place in Britain, France, Germany and Switzerland.

The end product of this high mobility was urbanisation, partly the result of chain migration that brought people from small towns and villages to cities in Europe and across the oceans. The migration of women became more discernable in the 19th century as they were needed in industry as well as in the harvest of flowers and potatoes. Finally, the transatlantic migrations to the USA from North-western Europe included the highest proportion of women -over 40 per cent were female- of the entire 1820-1929 period.

1. DESCRIPTION OF THE MIGRATION MOVEMENT

1.1 Who were they and where did they come from: ethnic origin, geographical background, religion, adults, men or women, special qualities?

Southern Europe

Spain
Portugal
Italy

* 1876-1976: Three quarter of the Italian emigrants were male, 80 per cent of working age (between 15 and 45); 35 per cent had been engaged in agriculture, another 40 per cent were common labourers and 25 per cent was artisans.
* 1876-1976: Of course the mix of Italian emigrants by gender, age and occupation changed over time and according to destination, but it is all proletarian and temporary.
Greece
 

Eastern Europe
Poland
Russia

* 1880-1913: One-fifth of all Jews left Russia after 1880 because of Pogroms. Jews left Eastern Europe because of Pogroms. Some of them went to France. Some went to Belgium or England.


1.2 How did they travel: transport, circumstances of travelling?

1.3 When?

* 18th - 19th century: Europeans moved all over the world.


Eastern Europe

Poland
Yugoslavia

* 1890-1910: After the great European agricultural crisis during the 1890s, which hit the Balkan peasantry hard, and the first decade of the 20th century, emigration from Yugoslavia grew into mass exodus.
Russia
 

1.4 How many?

Poland

* 1840-1914: 30 - 35 Million people left Europe. The big migration started about 1840 and reached its height just before WWI. In 1880, the number of migrants leaving Europe every year became more than 1 million. In 1905, more than 1 million, after that 1909-1911 400.000 each year. 1913 another million.
* 1800 - 1940: 50 Million people left Europe for good: They went to America, Australia, New Zealand, Siberia and South Africa.


Western Europe

UK

* 1800 - 1940: 17 million left England (including Ireland until 1920). They went to America, Australia, New Zealand, Siberia and South Africa.
Germany:
* 1800 - 1940: 6 million left Germany. They went to America, Australia, New Zealand, Siberia and South Africa.
France
* 1800 - 1940: 500.000 left France. They went to America, Australia, New Zealand, Siberia and South Africa.
Netherlands, Belgium
Nordic countries:
* 1800 - 1940: 2 million people left Scandinavia. They went to America, Australia, New Zealand, Siberia and South Africa.


Southern Europe

Spain:

* 1800 - 1940: 6.5 million left Spain and Portugal. They went to America, Australia, New Zealand, Siberia and South Africa.
Italy
* 1800 - 1940: 10 million left Italy. They went to America, Australia, New Zealand, Siberia and South Africa.
* 1876-1976: 13,5 million Italian migrants went to European countries, 6 million went to North America (90 % went to the USA) and 5 million to South America.)
Portugal and Greece
 

Eastern Europe
Poland

* 19th century - WWI: Many Jews went to England, especially from Russia and Poland. Jews in England: 1875: 51.250, 1901: 82.844, 1911: 95.541. {Cath}
Austria-Hungary
* 1800 - 1940: 5 million left Austria-Hungary. They went to America, Australia, New Zealand, Siberia and South Africa.
Russia
* 1882 -1913: 1.5 million Jews left Russia. Total: 2 million Jews left Eastern Europe and Russia between 1880 and 1914. Many the Jews went through Germany (1.2 million) and some stayed there (78.000).
* 19th century - WWI: Many Jews went to England, especially from Russia and Poland. Jews in England: 1875: 51.250, 1901: 82.844, 1911: 95.541.
* 1800 - 1940: Russia 2.5 million left. They went to America, Australia, New Zealand, Siberia and South Africa.


1.5 Permanent or temporary?

* 19th century: 70 Million people left Europe, 50 million permanent.


Southern e

Spain, Portugal Greece
Italy

* 1905-1976: In the period 1905-1976, more than 8.5 million Italian emigrants re-migrated. An estimate that at least half of all emigrants returned after shorter or longer sojourns abroad appears reasonable. (Survey, 114)


Eastern Europe

Poland
Yugoslavia

* 1890-1940: Many Yugoslavian migrants returned to their home country. (Survey, 285)
Russia
 

1.6 Where did they go to and where did they stay?

* 19th century: 70 Million people left Europe, 50 million permanent. 50% went to United States, rest to Latin America, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Russians to Caucasus and Siberia. Especially Irish, Scots, Germans and Scandinavians left.


Southern Europe

Spain
Portugal
Italy

* 1876-1976: Between 1876 and 1976, some 52 percent of the Italian migrants went to European countries, 44 per cent went to the Americas, 2 per cent to Africa and 1,5 per cent to Oceania, mainly Australia. (Survey, 114)
Greece
 

Eastern Europe
Poland

Yugoslavia

* 1924-1940: When the USA, Australia and Canada introduced restrictive immigration policies, the main destinations of Yugoslavian emigrants became Brazil, Argentina and, to some degree Canada. The migration to western and central Europe increased as well. (Survey, 285)
Russia
* 19th century - WWI: Many Jews went to England, especially from Russia and Poland.


2. CAUSES OF MIGRATION

2.1 Circumstances that favoured migration

* 19th century: Population growth, industrialisation (lower child mortality and more agricultural production) and a revolution in transportation stimulated migration away from Europe.


Western Europe

UK
Germany

* End 18th - 19th centuries: Migration from and inside Germany was favoured by population growth, the growth of the number of cities and poor people. Rulers tried to attract people to prevent depopulation of certain areas. {Sieny}
France, Netherlands, Belgium, Nordic countries


Southern Europe

Spain, Portugal Greece
Italy

* 1870s: The expansion of capitalism, nurtured by the economic policies of the neo kingdom of Italy, resulted in a sharply rising migration from the 1870s on. (Survey, 116)
* 1870-1931: Another underlying factor was the growth of Italy’s population from 27.5 million in 1871 to 40.5 million in 1931, a 50% increase despite the heavy emigration of those 60 years. (Survey, 118)


2.2 Circumstances that hindered migration

Western Europe
UK, Germany
France

* From 1789: While other Europeans emigrated in huge numbers, the French remained closely attached to their homeland. This was partly due to the country’s size and comparatively to the modest population growth after 1789. (Survey, 34)
Netherlands, Belgium, Nordic countries


2.3 Direct causes of migration

* 18th - 19th century: Population grew more quickly in Europe than in the rest of the world, which is why Europe could plant people overseas.
* 1832: Abolition of slavery caused the migration of contract labourers from China and India towards the colonies of England and France in North America, South America, Africa and Asia.


Western Europe

UK

* 18th-19th century: In some countries population growth caused great poverty. This caused the migration of many people, for instance Irish and Italians to several other countries in Europe. (See industrial revolution/searching for work).
Germany, France, Netherlands Nordic countries


Southern Europe

Spain, Portugal Greece
Italy

* 18th-19th century: In some countries population growth caused great poverty. This caused the migration of many people, for instance Irish and Italians to several other countries in Europe. (See industrial revolution/searching for work).


Eastern Europe

Poland

* 1880 - 1914: Pogroms in Russia and Poland and the rest of Eastern Europe made many Jews leave those countries. Some went to England. There they worked as tailors and boot makers. Some came to earn money and move on to America later on. Poverty in the areas they left will have caused this migration too.
Yugoslavia
* 1918-1940: During the inter-war period, when the first Yugoslavian state was formed, the motivation for emigration, in what remained an economically backward and crisis-ridden periphery in Europe, was even greater than it had been in 1914. (Survey, 285)
Russia
* 1880 - 1914: Pogroms in Russia, Poland and the rest of Eastern Europe made many Jews leave those countries. Some went to England where they worked as tailors and boot makers, while others came to earn money and later on moved to America, in part to escape poverty.


3. CONSEQUENCES OF MIGRATION

3.1 Short term consequences

positive consequences
- for the migrants (first generation)
- for their new environment / native born
- for the country they left.

negative consequences
- for the migrants (first generation)
- for their new environment / native born
- for the country they left.

3.2 Long term consequences

positive consequences

- for the migrants (second and third generation)
- for their new environment
- for the country they left

Eastern Europe
Poland Russia
Yugoslavia
- for the country they left

* 1914-1940: During the inter-war period when the first Yugoslavian state was formed, the motivation for emigration in what essentially remained an economically backward and crisis-ridden periphery in Europe was even greater than it had been in 1914. (Survey, 285)


North America

United States
- for their new environment

* 17th - 19th century: Immigrants shaped Countries such as the United States, Australia and New Zealand. They have built entire new societies with a mixture of nationalities and cultural backgrounds.


negative consequences

- for the migrants (second and third generation)
- for their new environment
- for the country they left.

North America
- for their new environment

* 17th - 18th century: Natives of the discovered countries became very rare or even exotic. They were chased away from their country.
- for their new environment
* 18th - 19th century: Evangelists and missionaries accompanied the colonists. In all the colonised countries, the leaders took over European habits, cloths, language etc.

United States, Canada


South America

- for their new environment

* 17th - 18th century: Natives of the discovered countries became very rare or even exotic. They were chased away from their country.

- for their new environment
* 18th - 19th century: Evangelists and missionaries accompanied the colonists. In all the colonised countries, the leaders took over European habits, cloths, language etc.
Argentina, Brazil, Mexico
 

Oceania
- for their new environment

* 17th - 18th century: Natives of the discovered countries became very rare or even exotic. They were chased away from their country.
- for their new environment
* 18th - 19th century: Colonists were accompanied by evangelists and missionaries. In all the colonised countries, the leaders took over European habits, cloths, language etc.


4. REACTIONS ON MIGRATION

4.1 Reactions of the receiving society on the immigrants
- official reaction
- reaction of the common people.

4.2 Reactions of the immigrants on their new environment
- integration / assimilation
- maintaining their own identity
- differences between first, second and third generation.

 

 

Dr. Marlou Schrover