The Constitutional and Nation Building

1 Description of the migration movement
2 Causes of migration
3 Consequences of migration
4 Reactions on migration


1. DESCRIPTION OF THE MIGRATION MOVEMENT

1.1 Who were they and where did they come from: ethnic origin, geographical background, religion, adults, men or women, special qualities?

Western Europe

UK

* 19th century: Prisoners were send to Australia.
Germany
* 18th century - 1848: political refugees from revolutions in Germany went to France and England. {Sieny}
* 1871: Germany: non-German minorities, socialists, Catholics oppressed by Bismarck went to England.

 

* 19th century: German students, socialists and anarchists went to Belgium.
France
* 1870/1871: Members of the French elite, artists, journalists and commune-members and supporters left France, some went to Belgium.
* 18..: Opponents of the second Empire in France were send to Algeria.
Netherlands
Belgium
* End 19th century: Belgian refugees went to Netherlands.
Nordic countries
 

Eastern Europe
Poland

* 1800: Jews left Russian Poland and went to England, especially to London.
* 1831: Polish elite left Poland.
Hungary
* 1868: The gypsy coppersmiths who arrived in the Netherlands in 1868 had Hungarian passports. Most of them came from the southern part of the kingdom of Hungary surrounding the city of Szegedin.
Russia
* 1880s-1890s: The majority of the Russians who fled to France were Jews.


1.2 How did they travel: transport, circumstances of travelling?

1.3 When?

Eastern Europe

* From about 1860 onwards is known as the period of massive gypsy migrations from Eastern to Western Europe.
Poland
Hungary
* About 40 per cent of the total number of Hungarian coppersmiths who passed through the Netherlands in the years 1868-1924 came only in the 1880s, with another 20 per cent in the 1890s. These figures are particularly interesting because they show a remarkable resemblance to the beginning of the overall emigration figures from south-east Europe in general and Hungary in particular.
Russia
 

1.4 How many?

Western Europe

UK
Germany

* 1849 - 1851: Over 1 million Germans left Germany and went to other European countries and the United States.
France, Netherlands, Belgium
Nordic countries

 

Eastern Europe

* 1860-..: It is assumed that the migration of the gypsies happened in great numbers. (Survey, 136)
Poland
* 1800: 20.000 - 30.000 Polish Jews went to England
Russia
* 1930: By 1930 there were only 100,000 Russians and Armenians in France.


1.5 Permanent or temporary?

Western Europe

UK
Germany

* 1848: Germans that went to France and England mostly went back after a while (1866).
France
* 1848-1849: Of the 15,000 French colonists who left in 1848-1849, a third died and a third returned to France within a year.)
* 1871: Commune members went to Belgium temporary, they went back in 1879.
Netherlands, Belgium, Nordic countries


Eastern Europe

* 1880-1910: The migration to Western Europe led to permanent settlements.
Poland, Russia


1.6 Where did they go to and where did they stay?

Western Europe
UK
Germany

* 1849 - 1851: Germans left Germany and went to other European countries and the United States.
France
* 1830 - 1850: French went to Belgium.
Netherlands, Belgium, Nordic countries


Southern Europe

Spain, Portugal, Greece
Italy

* Second half 19th century: Most Italian and Polish refugees in France chose to settle in the cities, particularly in Paris, while the immigrants who had been recruited for economic reasons were centred in the industrial zones in northern and eastern France.)


Eastern Europe

Poland

* Second half 19th century: Most Italian and Polish refugees in France chose to settle in the cities, particularly in Paris, while the immigrants who had been recruited for economic reasons were centred in the industrial zones in northern and eastern France.
* End 19th century, begin 20th century: Jews from Poland migrated to other European countries such as Germany and France. Some others went to Britain. Outside Europe the USA acted as the strongest magnet, drawing large numbers of people from shtetlach of Eastern Europe to Ellis Island and the new world beyond. (Survey, 149)
Russia
* End 18th century: Russia: (German??) farmers (were??) moved to Southern areas near the Black Sea and the mouth of the Volga.


2. CAUSES OF MIGRATION

2.1 Circumstances that favoured migration

* 18th - 19th century: The newly formed states signed trade-treaties, this favoured migration.


Western Europe

UK
Germany

* 1849 - 1851: The German refugees had the opportunity to escape to countries where revolutionaries were not persecuted. {Con}
France, Netherlands, Belgium, Nordic countries
 

Southern Europe
Spain, Portugal
Italy

* 1880-1930: The fact that ties were rooted in historical tradition between France and Italy was of great advantage to the Italians immigrating between 1880 and 1930. They were frequently able to make use of contacts through networks of migrants already in France and, in terms of their integration, they were greatly assisted by the small Italian communities which were by then well-established in France. (Survey, 143)
* First decade 20th century: In the years leading up to the First World War the French directors of the major industries and the larger landowners, who were short of agricultural labourers, joined forces to form an association with the aim of recruiting miners in Italy and agricultural workers in Poland. (Survey, 143)
Greece
 

Eastern Europe
Poland

* First decade 20th century: In the years leading up to the First World War the French directors of the major industries and the larger landowners, who were short of agricultural labourers, joined forces to form an association with the aim of recruiting miners in Italy and agricultural workers in Poland. (Survey, 143)
Romania
* 1860-..: After the abolition of slavery in the Romanian principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia, gypsies were, for the first time in centuries, able to wander again. (Survey, 136)
Russia
 

2.2 Circumstances that hindered migration

2.3 Direct causes of migration

Western Europe

UK
Germany

* 1848: Revolutions in 1848 made Germans go to England. Germans also wanted to become a big state, so they wanted to get business and foreign experience. {Cath}
* 1871: Bismarck attacked socialists in every possible way. He also wanted Germanising of the minorities and to reduce the power of the Catholic Church. Some Catholics, socialists and anarchists went to Belgium. The fact that Marx and Engels stayed in Belgium caused this migration too.
France
* 1830 - 1850: French went to Belgium because of political reasons, several coup d'état in 1834 and 1839 that finally led to the coup d'état of Napoleon III in 1851.
* Second half 19th century: The combination of the grave labour shortage and the demand of French industry between 1880 and 1930 provides an explanation for the mass immigration into France in those years. (Survey, 142)
* 1870: Members of the French elite came to Belgium after France had lost the war with Germany.
* 1871: Commune-revolt oppressed, caused Commune-supporters to leave Paris.
* 18..: The second Napoleonic Empire send opponents to Algeria.
Netherlands, Belgium, Nordic countries


Southern Europe

Spain, Portugal Greece
Italy

* Second half 19the century: The Italians and Poles came to France principally for economic reasons. There were however a small number of political refugees.


Eastern Europe

Poland

* 1831: Tsar Alexander suppressed the Polish revolt in a bloody manner. The other nations welcomed the Polish elites in exile, but did not restore the Polish State.
* 18th and 19th century: beginning in the 18the century, and continuing throughout the 19th, large numbers of Polish patriots driven out by Russian, Prussian and Austrian armies had sought refuge in France.
* Second half 19the century: The Italians and Poles came to France principally for economic reasons. There were however a small number of political refugees.
Russia
* 1880s-1890s: The Russian Jews in Western Europe were victims of the progroms, which followed the assassination of Tsar Alexander II in 1881.
Armenia
* 1908: The Armenians arrived in France en masse after the victory of the ‘Young Turk’ revolution in 1908, which marked the start of their persecution, orchestrated systematically by the new Turkish government.

3. CONSEQUENCES OF MIGRATION

3.1 Short term consequences

Positive consequences

- for the migrants (first generation)
- for their new environment
- for they country left.

Western Europe
UK, Germany, Netherlands
Belgium
- for the migrants (first generation)

* 19th century: Some French in Belgium entered the bourgeois or intellectual elites. Many of them worked in textile-industry in Brussels.
- for their new environment
* 19th century: The French that went to Belgium have been important for Belgian economic and cultural life
Nordic countries
 

Negative consequences
- for the migrants (first generation)
- for their new environment
- for they country left.

3.2 Long term consequences

Positive consequences

- for the migrants (second and third generation)
- for their new environment
- for the country they left.

Negative consequences
- for the migrants (second and third generation)
- for their new environment
- for the country they left.

4. REACTIONS ON MIGRATION

4.1 Reactions of the receiving society on the immigrants
- official reaction
- reaction of the common people.

Western Europe
UK
- official reaction

* 1905: In Britain the growing arrival of Russian Polish Jews encouraged the state in 1905 to erect controls over alien immigration. Tensions also developed in France, Germany and the USA.
- reaction of the common people
* 1880-1910: In Britain, for example, Jewish grandees helped return fellow Jews to the darkness of Russian Poland, fearing that the immigration into Britain would stimulate anti-Semitism.
Germany
France
- official reaction
* 1908: The fact that on the whole the French government retained a positive attitude towards the Armenians, despite the hostile nationalist movements of that period, was the result of the rallying of intellectuals.
- reaction of the common people
* 1880s-1890s: The arrival of Russian Jews coincided with the ‘Dreyfuss affair’, a period in which anti-Semitism reached its height. The Russian Jews remained targets for nationalist propaganda until at least 1918.
Netherlands
- official reaction
* 19th century: The Netherlands: attitude towards strangers changed as a result of constitutional changes. Ever since the appearance of the nation-state beginning 19th century admittance became more and more restricted by rules. 1815 first constitution, also laws on newcomers integrated in it. 1849 first Aliens Act. 1892: citizenship became inheritable. Because of the new legislation foreigners became more visible and more the subjects of individual actions. {Luc}
Belgium
- reaction of the common people
* 1850: The many French in Belgium were not always welcomed. Belgians said there were too many French journalists. The French in the theatre-world were more welcome.
- reaction of the common people
* 1871: The members of the Commune that went to Belgium were sometimes treated hostile and sometimes defended.
- reaction of the common people
* 1870: Some Belgians reacted hostile on the socialists and anarchists that came from Germany. Belgians were afraid that the ideas would radicalise the Belgian proletarians.
Nordic countries
 

4.2 Reactions of the immigrants on their new environment
- integration / assimilation
- maintaining their own identity
- differences between first, second and third generation.

Western Europe
- integration / assimilation

* 1880-1910: The (East European Jewish) communities in Western Europe created a growing economic salience.
UK
- maintaining their own identity
* 1815 - 1914: Jews in England stuck together, some areas (East-End in London) were called "Jerusalem". They founded synagogues, schools for Jewish education, Jewish stores and "Shewshiiks" (steam baths). In the end, the new Jews from Eastern Europe adjusted to the Western lifestyle.
Germany
France
- integration / assimilation
* Second half 19th century: The Italian immigration into France was of greater significance in terms of numbers than the Polish. The Italian immigration was more individual in character and took place over a longer period, thereby tending to produce a less close-knit community life.
- integration / assimilation
* second half 19the century: Both Italians and Poles went on to become integrated into French society in relatively similar ways.
- integration / assimilation
* Second half 19th century: Russians and Armenians form one of the main groups of political refugees who have found a place in French society.
- maintaining their own identity
* second half 19th century: The intense character of Polish community life and the tendency to cling to their traditions and native language were fostered by the nature of the recruitment process of France, which was at once collective and family-based.
- maintaining their own identity
* 1880-1939: Polish refugees lived in the cities of France, Polish immigrant workers were centred in the industrial zones of France. This prevented the Polish from establishing a community that brought them together effectively.
Netherlands
Belgium
- integration / assimilation
* 19th century: The French in Belgium sometimes integrated in higher circles.
Nordic countries


In Short

Many states accepted the right of their citizens to move but nationalism as a force drove people to migrate towards their "own" country. Some groups such as Jews and Gypsies, whom did not have a country of their own, were unwanted in many places.

 

 

Dr. Marlou Schrover