The French Revolution

1 Description of the migration movement
2 Causes of migration
3 Consequences of migration
4 Reactions on migration


1. DESCRIPTION OF THE MIGRATION MOVEMENT

1.1 Who were they and where did they come from: ethnic origin, geographical background, religion, adults, men or women, special qualities?

Western Europe


UK, Germany
France

* 1789: Royalist "émigrés" and refugees went to England and other European countries.
* 1789: After the French revolution all kinds of intellectuals and artists came to France.
Netherlands
* 1787: Thousands of Dutch refugees went to France
Belgium, Nordic countries
 

Southern Europe

Spain

* 1808 - 1814: 58.000 Spanish prisoners of war and Spanish refugees came to France.
Portugal
Italy, Greece
 

1.2 How did they travel: transport, circumstances of travelling?

1.3 When?

1.4 How many?

Western Europe
UK, Germany
France

* 1789: 60.000 French Royalist "émigrés" went to England and other European countries.
Netherlands, Belgium, Nordic countries
 

Southern Europe

Spain

* 1808 - 1814: 58.000 Spanish prisoners of war and 7000 Spanish refugees came to France. {Leq}
Portugal, Italy, Greece
 

1.5 Permanent or temporary?

Western Europe

UK, Germany, France
Netherlands
1787: The Dutch refugees stayed away temporarily. {Con}
Belgium, Nordic countries

1.6 Where did they go to and where did they stay?

Western Europe

UK, Germany
France

* 1789: 60.000 Royalist "émigrés" went to England and other European countries. Some went to Louisiana and Canada. {Can}
Netherlands
* 1787: Thousands of Dutch refugees went to France
Belgium
Nordic countries

2. CAUSES OF MIGRATION

2.1 Circumstances that favoured migration

Western Europe

UK, Germany
France

* 1815 - ....: Napoleons wars favoured migration of mercenaries and French clerics. The cultural climate in France attracted many intellectuals and artists. {Leq/Noi}
* 1789: The French revolution installed a freedom of thought that attracted many intellectuals and artists.
Netherlands
* 1787: The Dutch refugees had the opportunity to escape to a country where revolutionaries were not persecuted.
Belgium, Nordic countries

2.2 Circumstances that hindered migration

2.3 Direct causes of migration

Western Europe

UK, Germany
France

* 1789: The royalist "émigrés" went to England and other European countries to wait for the restoration of the French monarchy.
* 1789: The French revolution caused refugees.
Netherlands
* 1787: The Dutch refugees were patriots. They started a revolution in 1785 to limit the power of the regents and "stadthouder" William V. The patriots were chased away by the Prussian army which was led by the brother of Wilhelmina, William’s wife. The army defeated the patriots in a bloody manner. Opponents of the royal power, democrats, republicans and liberals were executed or persecuted. Therefore, these people tried to escape. {Con}
Belgium, Nordic countries
 

South America
Argentina, Brazil
Mexico

* 1808 - 1814: The war between Spain and France caused the movement of Spanish prisoners of war and refugees towards France.

3. CONSEQUENCES OF MIGRATION

3.1 Short term consequences

Positive consequences

- for the migrants (first generation)
- for their new environment / native born
- for the country they left.

Western Europe
UK, Germany
France
- for their new environment

* 1787: The Dutch patriots joined the French army when they went to France in 1787 and with their help they established the Republic. {Con}
Netherlands, Belgium, Nordic countries
 

Negative consequences
- for the migrants (first generation)
- for their new environment / native born
- for the country they left.

Western Europe
UK, Germany, France
Netherlands
- for the country they left

* 1787: Partly as a consequence of the escape of Dutch patriots to France, the Batavian Republic was established in the Netherlands in 1795.
Belgium, Nordic countries
 

3.2 Long term consequences

Positive consequences
- for the migrants (second and third generation)
- for their new environment
- for the country they left.

Negative consequences
- for the migrants (second and third generation)
- for their new environment
- for the country they left.

4. REACTIONS ON MIGRATION

4.1 Reactions of the receiving society on the immigrants
- official reaction
- reaction of the common people

Western Europe
UK
- official reaction

* 18th century: England made rules for foreigners. 1793: Aliens Act: the possibility of sending foreigners back was recorded in this law. {Cath}
- reaction of the common people
 
*   1800: Jews in England were treated with hostility due to the growing number of poor Jews living in London; after 1880 this hostility escalated as their numbers increased. Reasons: -Jews were blamed of murdering Jesus, -Jews were personification of capitalism, -Jews were competitors on real estate market, -Jews retained their culture too much. There was also a conflict between Jews that were in England for a longer time (English and German Jews) and the new Russian and Polish Jews. Reasons: -religious conflicts, -Russian Jews were socialists, English Jews liberals, - English Jews had adjusted to Western marriage and birth habits, while Eastern Jews still had large families and married young, -English Jews were afraid the new Jews would disrupt the relation between Jews and English. Hostile actions: 1901: Bethnal Green Club (liberals) did not accept Jewish members, Jews were excluded from certain jobs and houses all over England. On the other hand there was also support for the new Jews from other Jews by means of the: "Poor Jews Temporary shelter project".
Germany, France, Belgium, Nordic countries


4.2 Reactions of the immigrants on their new environment

- integration / assimilation
- maintaining their own identity
- differences between first, second and third generation.

 

 

Dr. Marlou Schrover