Industrial Revolution

 
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1 Description of the migration movement
2 Causes of migration
3 Consequences of migration
4 Reactions on migration

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PERIOD:

Demography and economy:
A demographic revolution took place in this period. Population grew very quickly due to a decreased death rate and increased fertility. Most people still lived in the countryside. Between 1750 and 1815, only 7% of the European population lived in cities. Life in the villages changed, however. Agricultural production became more intensive and large scale (to produce raw materials for the rural industry) and as a result, the number of farmers without land grew. Towns with rural industry grew and provided much work. In other towns, trade and industry grew. World trade and politics became more influential in the every-day life of the villagers. The group of proletarians grew quickly due to downwards social mobility and the fact that proletarians had more children than farmers.

In the 19th century, population continued to grow. In many countries, population doubled. Increasing scaling also continued and thus, the number of proletarians likewise continued to grow. The landless farmers did not have the security they had previously when working for a land owning farmer. Modern farmers did not hire help for a whole year anymore, but only for the harvest season. Because they now only produced one or two crops, the harvest season was very short as well. The economy needed teams of harvesters that went from town to town. Many people moved around in Western and also in Eastern Europe after the abolition of serfdom in 1861. By 1850, the countryside had become very overcrowded, partially because of the rural industry that was located there. Malthus developed a theory on the population growth. Too much population growth would lead to disaster and misery.

Between 1815 and 1914, an industrial revolution took place. The industries in the cities eventually won the competition with the rural industries. Because of the industrial revolution that took place, urbanisation started in the 19th century. Cities still needed many new people every now and again because of bad sanitary conditions and diseases. The cities however did not need a constant refill of people anymore. In 1800, there were only 23 cities with over 100.000 citizens. By 1900, there were 135 cities with over 100.000 citizens. Not everybody lived in the city permanently. There were several types of cities: cities with textile industry, cities with heavy industry and administrative/commercial cities. Industrial revolution also effected transportation. In the 19th century bicycles, steamships and trains made it easier for people to move further away. In the 20th century, the explosion motor further accelerated this process. An ever-growing part of world population became subdued to market economy.

Politics:
The French revolution in 1789, opened an era of liberal revolution. Liberal revolution slowly established the right of every citizen to move whenever and wherever he liked. Religious tolerance grew. The idea of one nationality in one country started to develop and caused nationalism. Because of this and other ideologies a new group of refugees grew, the political refugees. Government policy had a large influence on people in Europe now. There were many wars going on in Europe, like the Seven-Year War (1756 - 1763), the Austrian War of Succession.

In many countries revolutions took place in the first half of the 19th century. Governments were afraid of social unrest and socialism. They tried to get rid of the surplus of proletarians, who were a potential source of unrest. European governments stimulated the migration of people towards colonies and former colonies. Across the ocean, a revolution had taken place also and had the result that an independent state came into existence there. Many labourers were wanted there after the abolition of slavery somewhat after 1833.

At the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, nationalism continued to grow. Large empires like the Austrian-Hungarian, the Ottoman and the Russian collapsed and were split up in separate states. Eastern Europe got it’s own share of nation-states after Western European concept. The idea of an own state for every nationality did not work out everywhere. In many countries there lived a mixture of nationalities. This caused much movement of people towards their "own" country. Some groups however, like Jews and Gypsies, did not have there own country and were not welcome anywhere. From 1880 onwards, especially Jews in Eastern Europe were the victims of growing hostility.

 

EFFECT OF CHARACTERISTICS ON MIGRATION:

Demography and economy:
The demographic revolution in Europe caused an enormous migration to America and other overseas areas. The demographic surplus was stimulated to go there. Governments also saw this migration as a solution to a possible source of social unrest. The English government for instance was happy to see many Irish go to America, because if they had not they would have gone to England. America also was the solution for England’s own poor. Their departure decreased the costs of social support. Many poor labourers who has previously moved around Europe travelled to further destinations now. Facts about these migrants can be found below under the heading: demographic revolution.

In the period between 1750 and 1815, the traditional local and circle migration were overshadowed by two patterns:

- Because of rural industry people became more bound to the countryside, there were more jobs. Some people had to move to get to these jobs.
- At the same time cities attracted merchants and industry-labourers. They moved to the cities and settled around them.

After 1750 there was more and more subsistence-migration. People did not migrate to earn some extra money, but to make their living. They needed money to buy a piece of land, to pay their taxes and their debts. More and more beggars and wanderers migrated through Europe. Teams of harvesters moved around because large farmers grew one or two crops and needed help only in the harvest season. In Europe, about 1800 seven large seasonal migration-systems existed which each included about 20.000 people. One of these systems was the one concentrated near the North-Sea coasts. People from the hinterland (Hollandgänger) went to the North-Sea coast for the season. Within these systems so many people were on the move that Napoleon was worried about the recruitment for his army. The circle migration was at its height between 1850 and 1914, but chain migration and career migration had already become more important.

At first the urbanisation after 1850 also had a circular character. In the harvest season, people worked on the countryside and the rest of the time in the cities. More and more people could not fall back on the countryside. That is when circle migration became chain migration. Cities with textile or heavy-industry attracted labourers, just like commercial and administrative centres. People from all over Europe (after 1861 also from Eastern Europe) and even from other continents moved towards the new industry-centres in England, France and Germany. Industrial revolution introduced new means of transportation that made it easier to move over longer distances. Facts about these migrants can be found below under the heading: industrial revolution/searching for work.

Politics:
Revolutions caused migration all over Europe in this period. The French revolution caused migration from France to other parts of Europe and attracted liberals to France. After the revolution in America, a stream of loyal English went back to England or went to Canada. Revolutions in Germany made people leave their country etc.

Another force that caused migration was nationalism. Because of the wish to make states with one nationality in them, rulers suppressed minorities and encouraged people from their own nationality to return "home". Especially after 1870, Jews and Gypsies were the main victims of these actions. Anti-Semitism grew because of nationalism and the fact that they did not have a "home-country" meant they were not welcome anywhere. Facts about these migrants can be found below the heading: liberal revolution and formation of states.

1. DESCRIPTION OF THE MIGRATION MOVEMENT

1.1 Who were they and where did they come from: ethnic origin, geographical background, religion, adults, men or woman, special qualities?
Western Europe
UK

* 17th - 19th century: Irish went to England.
* End 18th - start 19th century: English farmers went to the cities.
* 19th century - 1914: Chinese people from India and Africans went to England.
* 19th - start 20th century: Italians went to England. 1871: 5.063, 1911: 20.389. French went to England also: 1861: 12.989, 1901: 20.797. Lithuanians also went to England, especially to mining-areas and heavy industry.
* 18th - 19th century: Labourers moved from the countryside in England towards new centres of industry.
Germany
* 18th - 19th century: Germans moved inside Germany towards the new industry areas in the Rhine-Ruhr-area. Other Germans went to the industry-areas in England. After 1890 less Germans went to England because German industry grew. 1871: 32.823, 1911: 53.324 Some Germans went to France. Germans from Hessen went to Paris. Germans also moved to Rumania from Russia.
* 1750 - 1815: German engineers, merchants, officers, bankers, etc. went to South America.
* 19th century: Many small farmers and day-labourers travelled in Eastern Germany
* 1880 - 1900: Germans went to Russian industry-areas in present-day Poland.
* 1800 - 1913: People went from the countryside to the cities. Especially in England, but also in Germany and other European countries. 1800: 22 million people in European cities, 1913: 184 million. 50% lived in English or German cities. Germany: Rhine and Ruhr areas were centres of migrants.
* 19th century: Germans came to the Netherlands, especially to the areas around the mines. There were also still season workers from Germany. Germans "Hollandgänger" went to industry in the Netherlands.
France
Netherlands
* 19th century: There was also a reversed movement of Dutch workers towards the German industry.
Belgium, Nordic countries
Switzerland
* 1815-1914: Swiss went to France

Southern Europe
Spain

* 1815 - 1914: Spaniards went to France.
Portugal

Italy
* 19th century: Italians came to the Netherlands, especially to the areas around the mines. The area along the North Sea coast, between Calais and Bremen attracted labourers from the areas further within the interior.
Greece

Eastern Europe
Poland

* 19th century: Poles and Slovakians came to the Netherlands, especially to the areas around the mines. The area along the North Sea coast, between Calais and Bremen attracted labourers from the areas a little more on the continent.
Russia

1.2 How did they travel?

1.3 When?

1.4 How many?
Western Europe
UK

* 17th - 19th century: Irish went to England in growing numbers after 1800, 1841: 289.404, 1851: 591.953, 1861: 601.634, 1871: 566.540, 1901: 426.565.
* 1830: 60.000 English came to France.
* 19th century - 1914: Chinese people from India and Africans went to England. Chinese: 1871: 207, 1901: 767,
1911: 1.319.
Germany
* 1830:30.000 Germans came to France.
* 1880 - 1900: Germans went to Russian industry-areas in present-day Poland. About 1900 there were 1.7 million Germans in Russia.
* 1880 - 1914: 1.5 million Germans went to Hungary. }
France
* 19th - start 20th century: French went to England also: 1861: 12.989, 1901: 20.797.
* 1815 - 1914: Many foreigners came to France: Totals: 1830: 200.000 foreigners: 1851: 380.000, 1876: 800.000, 1881: 1 million, 1911: 1.13 million.
Netherlands
Belgium
* 1815 - 1914: Belgians went to France: 1886: 486.000 Belgians.
Nordic countries

Southern Europe
Spain, Portugal
Italy

* 19th - start 20th century: Italians went to England. 1871: 5.063, 1911: 20.389.
* 1815 - 1914: Italians went to France: 1901 330.000 Italians.
Greece

1.5 Permanent or temporary?
Western Europe

UK

* 17th - 19th century: Many Irish went to England only in the harvest-season. With the growing mechanisation they also went to other jobs and stayed longer.
* 1870: Migration labour to England started to change from temporary to permanent migration.
* 19th century - 1914: Chinese came to England mostly temporarily.
* 1880 - 1914: Jews went to England both permanently and temporarily: Some came to earn money and move on to America later on.
Germany
* 19th century: Many Germans that went to Belgium moved on to France or the United States later on. Germans went to work in Paris and went back afterwards.
France
* 1815 - 1915: Most labourers who came to France stayed permanently, some came for season work.
Netherlands
* 19th century: People went to the North Sea coast temporarily.
Belgium, Nordic countries

1.6 Where did they go to and where did they stay?
Western Europe

UK

* 1815-1914: The English went especially to Normandy (France).
* 17th - 19th century: Irish went to England, especially to Liverpool and London.
* 18th - 19th century: Labourers moved from the countryside towards new centres of industry: Black Country surrounding Birmingham,
* 18th - 19th century: Irish to Liverpool and Manchester,
* 19th century - 1914: Chinese people from India and Africans went to England. The Chinese went especially to Liverpool, London and Cardiff.
Germany
* 1750 - 1815: German engineers, merchants, officers, bankers, etc. went to South America
* 18th - 19th century: Germans moved inside Germany towards the new industry areas in the Rhine-Ruhr-area. Other Germans went to the industry-areas in England.
* 19th century: Many Germans came to Belgium.
France
* 18th - 19th century: French labourers went to North and Eastern France, Wallon, the Ruhr-area and Bretons went to Paris.
Netherlands
Belgium
* 1815-1914: The Belgians went especially to North France.
Nordic countries

Southern Europe
Spain, Portugal
Italy

* 18th - 19th century: Italians went to Paris.
Greece

Eastern Europe
Poland

* 19th century: Poles went to the Ruhr-area in Germany. {Sieny}
Russia

2. CAUSES OF MIGRATION

2.1 Circumstances that favoured migration

* 18th - 19th century: Rulers tried to attract scientists, skilled workers, soldiers, military leaders, etc.
* 19th century: People could move easier because of improvements in infrastructure and transportation. Roads were built, canals were made, 1840-1880 railways were build, second half 19th century steamships were used instead of sailing ships. End 19th century electricity and explosion-engine further improved transportation.
* 19th century: Areas that attracted migrant labourers had: a favourable geographic position, favourable natural circumstances like minerals, a well developed economic infrastructure and high wages
* 19th century: Areas that sent people had: less favourable geographic position, less fertile ground, no fen-areas, less developed economic infrastructure.

Western Europe
UK

* 17th - 19th century: Ireland was a poor country with large population growth, dominated by England, which favoured migration towards England. In 1800, even Ireland became a part of England.
* 1840: England started to use steamships for transatlantic trips.
* 19th century - 1914: The abolition of slavery in the British colonies in 1833 favoured the migration of Chinese and people from India to England. Rich Africans and people from India sent their children to England because the education-system was better there.
Germany
* 1815 - 1914: Higher wages and better working conditions stimulated the migration of Germans to England.
* 19th century: The increasing labour shortage in agriculture and industry, in road and canal building turned the influx of foreign labour migrants to Germany into a mass movement. After 1893, the shift from an emigration country to a labour-importing country began.

Southern Europe
Spain, Portugal, Greece
Italy

* 19th - 20th century: Italians went to England because of economic reasons. After the unification of Italy in 1870 the North became richer and the South poorer. Small farmers in Southern Italy could not compete with large landowners in the North. They were wanted in England as artists and later on (1890 - WWI) as waiters and cooks. Many them could open ice cream stores. 1911: 1000 in England, 220 in Scotland.

Eastern Europe
Poland
Lithuania

* 19th - 20th century: Lithuanians went to England to work in the mines and heavy industry. {Cath}
Russia
* 19th century: In Russia transportation to Siberia got better after the Trans-Siberian express railway was finished.

2.2 Circumstances that hindered migration
Eastern Europe

Poland

* The Prussian policy of repulsion ensured that Polish migrant workers could be restricted to certain provinces and occupations and that their mass movement would remain an annual seasonal migration. (Survey, 134)
Russia

2.3 Direct causes of migration

Western Europe
UK

* 18th - 19th century: Irish went to England because of economic reasons. One-third of the Irish population was dependent upon the potato-harvest for income. In 1845 the complete harvest miscarried. From the end of the 19th century more women moved to England because they could not afford a dowry and that meant they could not marry in Ireland. In England they did jobs that the English did not want to do. {Cath}
* end 18th - start 19th century: In England enclosures forced farmers to go to the cities.
* 19th century - 1914: Chinese went to England to earn money. {Cath}
Germany
* 1815 - 1914: Germans went to England after a big agricultural disaster in 1816, but also after revolutions in 1848. Germans wanted theirs to become a big state, so they wanted to attain business and foreign experience.
* End 18th - 19th centuries: The appearance of industrial activities in certain areas in Germany made people from other parts of the country move there.
* 19th century: Germans who went to Belgium did so to make a better living, they were mostly skilled labourers. Many labourers could come to Belgium to do the jobs the Belgians did not want to do anymore.
* 19th century: Eastern Germany: many small farmers and day-labourers had to travel around to make a living.
France
* 16th - 17th - 18th century: French could find work in other areas of France and in the cities. The agricultural areas needed harvesters and the cities needed all kinds of skilled people. Each area delivered its own skills. Savoy for instance delivered chimney sweeps for Paris.
* 1815 -1914: The appearance of modern industries in France favoured migration.
Netherlands
* 19th century: The migrant labourers went to the Netherlands for economic reasons. They needed to earn some money so that they could provide for their family, homes or enterprises. The employers needed the extra labourers.
* 19th century: The industrialisation of Germany caused a stream of migration workers from the Netherlands to German industry.
Belgium
* 19th century: Crisis in Belgian industry caused Belgians to go to France
Nordic countries

Southern Europe
Spain, Portugal, Greece
Italy

* 19th - 20th century: The Southern part of Italy was very poor, there was population growth and industrial and agricultural changes did not help the South. This stimulated Italians to leave their country, for instance to England.

3. CONSEQUENCES OF MIGRATION

3.1 Short term consequences
Positive consequences
- for the migrants (first generation)
- for the new environment /native born
- for the country they left

Western Europe
UK, Germany
France
- for the new environment /native born

* 18th - 19th century: Many foreign mercenaries, especially from Italy and Poland, but also from Spain, Belgium and Germany were in the French army. 1811: 64.000. 1815 - 1914 several tens-of thousands. {Leq}
Netherlands, Belgium, Nordic countries

Negative consequences
- for the migrants (first generation)
- for the new environment /native born
- for the country they left

3.2 Long term consequences
Positive consequences

- for the migrants (second and third generation)
- for the new environment
- for the country they left

Western Europe
UK
- for the new environment

* End 19th century: Germans brought knowledge of industry (especially textile-industry) to England.
- for the new environment
* 1880 - 1914: Russian Jews that went to England formed anarchist and socialist groups and stimulated the English unions and labour party. They enlarged the socialist feelings in England. {Cath}
Germany, France, Netherlands
Belgium
- for the new environment
* 19th century: Immigrants in Belgium have helped to build the Belgian industry and supported Belgian economy.
Nordic countries

Negative consequences
- for the migrants (second and third generation
- for the new environment
- for the country they left

4 REACTIONS ON MIGRATION

4.1 reactions of the receiving society on the immigrants
- official reaction
- reaction of the common people

Western Europe
UK
- official reaction

* 19th century: 1867 and 1884: Measures were taken to give some of the Irish immigrants the right to vote.
- official reaction
* 19th century - WWI: England took measures against unwanted foreigners. 1863: Aliens Registration Act. Ships with more than 20 passengers had to go to special harbours; only acknowledged refugees could stay. 1905: Special measures were taken against Gypsies. No more Gypsies could come from Europe to increase the concentration of the Gypsies that were already in England.
- reaction of the common people
* 19th century: England: the Irish were treated with hostility because: -Irish were Catholics, English were Protestants, -emotional Irish nationalism roused irritation, -English considered the Irish to be inferior because of British domination over Ireland, -the Irish held the image of heavy drinkers, -conflicts between English Catholics and Irish Catholics, the Irish were more puritan and there belief was connected with nationalism. An example of violence against Irish: In 1882: Irish possessions damaged at Tredegar-Wales. The cause of this violence was the competition between Irish and English workers in the iron-industry. There was much unemployment and the Irish were the scapegoat.
- reaction of the common people
* 19th - start 20th century: Italians in England were sometimes admired because of their past and culture, but they also got negative reactions. Reasons: Until 1880 Italian children were used as street vendors (in England or in Italy??), -the English protestants had religious conflicts with the Italian Catholics.
- reaction of the common people
* 1815 - 1914: Germans in England were accepted because of the German king on the English throne (Hanover-dynasty). But they were also treated with hostility. Reasons: -German office-employees were willing to work for lower wages (the large unemployment at the end of the 19th century in the sector made them scapegoats), -1870, victory of Germany in the French-German war made the British scared of large German empire. Especially the German Gypsies were treated with hostility. Their nomadic lifestyle was associated with begging and stealing and the English were afraid there far more foreigners would come from the continent, because other countries dumped their foreigners (amongst whom these Gypsies) in England.
- reaction of the common people
* 19th century - 1914: The Chinese in England often got negative reactions. Reasons: -English said that the Chinese took their women, smoked Opium, gambled a lot, -1900 Boxer uprising, -1904-1905: War Japan-China caused fear for Asians, -cheap Chinese labourers were heavy competition. People from India and Africans were often discriminated. White labourers threatened with strikes if they had to work with them, Students in Cambridge were opposed to them, and English saw themselves as superiors because of colonialism. {Cath}
Germany
- official reaction
* 19th century: The German government was opposed to the integration-process (of Polish people). {Sieny}
- reaction of the common people
* 19th century: Newcomers in Germany were forced to integrate due to the German nationalism. Poles were considered dangerous foreigners for a long time.
France, Netherlands, Belgium, Nordic countries

4.2 Reactions of the immigrants on their new environment
- integration/ assimilation
- maintaining their own identity
- differences between first, second and third generation

Western Europe
UK
- integration/ assimilation

* 19th - start 20th century: Lithuanians were distrusted at first, but later on they united themselves with the Scots in unions.
- maintaining their own identity
* 19th century: Irish in England often had problems adjusting. They came from agricultural towns in Ireland to industrial cities in England. This led to social disorder and sometimes to criminal behaviour.
- maintaining their own identity
* 1882: Irish National League of Great Britain was founded. This organisation stimulated Irish nationalism.
- maintaining their own identity
* 19th - start 20th century: Italians in England stuck together. Before 1870, there were Italian clubs, hospitals, churches etc.
- maintaining their own identity
* 19th century - 1914: Chinese in England did not integrate well, because they only stayed temporary.
- maintaining their own identity
* 1815 - 1914: Germans in England founded German institutes. 1860: German Athenaeum (for the German elite), 1861: Turnverein (also for English), besides that there were many German clubs to eat German food, read German papers etc. German schools, orphanages, churches and hospitals.
Germany
- integration/ assimilation
* 19th century: Poles in Germany integrated. Some of them kept their own identity.
France
* 19th century: France: groups that had already been in France for a while, like Belgians and Italians, integrated.
- maintaining their own identity
* 19th century: Other groups in France like Poles took a lot longer to integrate. In large industries with little social mobility integration went slowly.
Netherlands
- maintaining their own identity
* 19th century: The migrant workers that went to the North Sea coast had very little contact with local labourers.
Belgium
- maintaining their own identity
* 19th century: The Germans in Belgium founded a German school and a bank.
Nordic countries

IN SHORT

The industrial revolution provided them with better means of transportation to travel longer distances more easily. This revolution also provided work, in rural industry-centres first and later in cities. More and more migrants settled elsewhere permanently. Although between 1850 and 1914, circle migration was still the most important form of migration, chain and career migration became more and more important. More and more paupers did not have the rural area to fall back on in the harvest season anymore.

 

 

Dr. Marlou Schrover