Migration on Economic Reasons

 
1 Description of the migration movement
2 Causes of migration
3 Consequences of migration
4 Reactions on migration


1. DESCRIPTION OF THE MIGRATION MOVEMENT

1.1 Who were they and where did they come from: ethnic origin, geographical background, religion, adults, men or women, special qualities?
Western Europe
UK
Germany

* 1716: Schwaben went to Rumania and Russia. {Sieny}
* Germans went to France. (Survey, 133)
France, Netherlands, Belgium, Nordic countries

Southern Europe
Spain
Italy

* 1650 - 1750: Italian merchants came to Germany, especially to Frankfurt. {Sieny}
Greece

1.2 How did they travel: transport, circumstances of travelling?

1.3 When?

1.4 How many?
Western Europe
UK
Germany

* 1763 - 1800 37.000 Germans went to Russia. {Sieny}
* 1748 - 1786: 240.000 Germans went to Hungary.
France
* 1650 - 1750: Spaniards, Swedes, Dutch (a few thousand), Germans, Savoyans and Swiss (total of last three: 15.000 - 20.000 between 1660 and 1740), Irish and Scots (1653 8 regiments in French army with 15.000 Irish) came to France. *18th century: Germans, Swiss, Spaniards, Italians, Dutch and English came to France. They went especially to trade-areas like Marseilles and Bordeaux. There were also many foreign mercenaries in the French army.
Netherlands, Belgium, Nordic countries

1.5 Permanent or temporary?
Western Europe

UK

* 1691: Irish went to France temporary.
Germany
* The German labour migrants to France stayed.
France
* 16th - 17th century: French went to work elsewhere in France temporarily. They stayed away for several months or a year. Even the ones that went to overseas colonies kept hoping they would return some day. The French seasonal migration to Catalonia evolved into permanent resettlement.
* 1650 -1750: Swiss and Germans went to France permanently, Dutch and Swedes temporary and Savoyans came for the season.
* 18th century: Labourers and craftsmen often went to France permanently. }
Netherlands
* 1650 - 1750: People from several countries came to the Netherlands both permanently and temporarily (season migration). The German "Hollandgänger" came temporarily.
Belgium
Nordic countries

1.6 Where did they go to and where did they stay?
Western Europe
UK

* 1650 - ....: Irish came to England.
* 1650 - 1750: People from India came to England.
Germany
* 1650 - ....: Germans came to England. Big wave of migration after 1709, number kept growing until 1850.
* 1763: Catharine of Russia installed 20.000 Germans near the Volga and 40.000 Germans were installed in Ukraine.
* 18th century: Frederick II installed 300.000 German colonists in Prussia. The Germans came from the south and southwest of German territory.
France
* 16th - 17th century: French crossed the Pyrenees to Spain. 1570 - 1620: 10 - 20% of the male population of Catalonia originated in France. Other French moved to fertile countryside (like Languedoc) or to growing cities.
* 1530-1900: During the first period of French expansion, beginning in the 16th century, settlement was concentrated in the Americas. The second period, beginning in 1830, was concentrated in North Africa, particularly Algeria
* 1600-1830: Despite their tiny size, the Caribbean islands were more attractive to French migrants than the Americas.
* 1840s: Of the 26,000 people who left France each year during the 1840s, for example 8,000 were bound for other European destinations, 7,700 for the USA, 5,500 for South America and only 4,500 for Algeria.
Netherlands
* 1650 - 1750: The Dutch went mostly to the areas between Loire and Gironde, Medoc and area around Bordeaux.
* 1650 - 1750: People from several countries came to the Netherlands (both Northern and Southern). Portuguese and Italian merchants went to Antwerp. 30.000 Germans "Hollandgänger" (from Westphalia and southern and eastern parts of Germany) came to the coast of the North Sea. Also people from Twente. 47.000 German maidservants and sailors came to Holland (Amsterdam).
Belgium, Nordic countries

2. CAUSES OF MIGRATION 2.1 Circumstances that favoured migration
Western Europe
UK

* 1650 - ....: The fact that England was a rich industrialising country and Ireland a poor agricultural country favoured migration from Ireland to England.
Germany
* 18th century: Catharine II recruited foreign settlers by offering them numerous privileges. Germans settled into areas near the Volga, but also in the Caucasus and Siberia.
Francee
* 17th century: Under Colbert, civilian colonisation was encouraged to consolidate the tenuous grip on the American colonies. Free passage and generous allocations of land and accommodation were offered to army veterans; orphan girls were forcibly transported to redress the colonial gender imbalance; and press gangs roamed the streets of French cities ‘recruiting’ petty criminals and the unemployed as pioneer colonists.
* After 1841: Civilian colonisation was encouraged on territory seized by the French army. Colonists were offered free passage, land and accommodation.
* After 1848: After the 1848 revolution, the republican French government offered unemployed Parisian workers a chance to emigrate to rural Algeria at the state’s expense.
* 18th century: The economic situation in France favoured labour migration towards France.
Netherlands
* 1650 - 1750: People came to the Netherlands because this country was a very wealthy country. The season workers were needed in agriculture, for infra-structural works and in the peat colonies. Merchants came because of good conditions, Portuguese merchants could easily enter banking, diamond trade, etc. And because of favourable measurements taken by the government.
Belgium, Nordic countries

Eastern Europe
Poland
Russia

* 1700: Russia and England had started to maintain friendly diplomatic contact with each other. This stimulated Russians to go to England.

2.2 Circumstances that hindered migration
Western Europe UK
Germany

* 1650-1750: For Germans Holland was close.
France, Netherlands, Belgium, Nordic countries

Eastern Europe Poland
Russia

* 16th century: In the last part of the 16th century the Russian government forbid the migrations because the nobility in the North needed the labourers.

2.3 Direct causes of migration
Western Europe
UK

* 1650 - 1750: People from India came to England as sailors or employees with the East Indian Company.
Germany
* 1650 - ....: England industrialised early. This attracted German businessmen and merchants. The reign of a German (Hanover) king in England after 1715 stimulated migration as well.
* 1716: Schwaben were asked to come to Romania and Russia. They could work there as soldiers, clerics, craftsmen and farmers.
France
* 1650 - 1750: Swiss, Germans, Swedes came to France for economic reasons. In their country, it was hard to make a living. France needed people to work in several ways: Dutch were asked to come, for drainage of French areas, they could earn much money in France. Spaniards worked especially in agriculture, some Swiss, Irish and Scots worked in the French army, and other Swiss worked as bankers, land labourers and artisans.
Netherlands
* 1650 - 1750: People came to the Netherlands to work as sailors, soldiers, servants and temporary labourers, because they needed the money. The wages in the area they went to were twice as high as back home. Season workers needed the money in addition to the income they had in their own country from agriculture. Wars and population growth made people leave Germany as well.
Belgium, Nordic countries

Southern Europe
Spain
Italy

* 1650 - 1750: Italian merchants came to Germany to sell meat, sugar and fruit.
Greece

Eastern Europe
Poland
Austria

* 1730: Salzburg farmers went to Prussia on request of King Frederick William I.
Russia
* 16th century: Migration in Russia: After the development of the principality of Moscow, the actions of Ivan the Great (1462-1505) and his successor Ivan the Terrible (1533-1584) caused new migrations. Farmers tried to escape and went to the south-east of the country. At first the migrations were stimulated by the government because the people would strengthen the new conquered territories. The people went anyway for economic reasons. Some of these fugitives were Cossacks.
* 17th - 18th century: Under the reign of Peter the Great (1682-1725) and Catharine II (1762-1796) people went south again. After the victory over the Ottoman Empire, the Russian Empire was able to expand all the way to the Black Sea. From 1579, after the battle over Siberia, people started moving to the East as well. To the East the expansion went faster than to the South. This movement is comparable to the frontier movement in America.

3. CONSEQUENCES OF MIGRATION 3.1 Short term consequences
Positive consequences
- for the migrants (first generation)
- for their new environment / native born
- for the country they left

Western Europe
UK
Germany
- for their new environment / native born

* 1730: The Salzburgers that went to Prussia made this area more prosperous.
France
- for their new environment / native born
* 1650 -1750: Swedes brought skill of producing resin and tar to France and the Dutch helped with the drainage of areas in France.
Netherlands
- for the migrants (first generation)
* 1650-1750: A consequence for the labourers in the Netherlands themselves was a better economic position. In Antwerp a homogenous community of Portuguese merchants appeared.
- for their new environment / native born
* 1650 - 1750: The season workers and other labour migrants that came to the Netherlands solved the problem of (temporary) labour shortage and enriched the society because they brought skills with them.
- for their new environment / native born
Belgium, Nordic countries

Eastern Europe
Poland
Romania
- for their new environment / native born

* 1716: Schwaben brought prosperity to Romania.
Russia

Negative consequences
- for the migrants (first generation)
- for their new environment / native born
- for the country they left

Western Europe
UK
Germany
- for the country they left

* 1716: The German kings tried to stop the Schwaben from moving to Rumania and Russia by forbidding them to take anything of value with them.
France, Netherlands and Belgium, Nordic countries

3.2 Long term consequences
Positive consequences
- for the migrants (second and third generation)
- for their new environment
- for the country they left

Negative consequences
- for the migrants (second and third generation)
- for their new environment
- for the country they left

4. REACTIONS ON MIGRATION

4.1 Reactions of the receiving society on the immigrants - official reaction
- reaction of the common people

Western Europe
UK
- reaction of the common people

* 1650 - ....: The Germans that went to England were treated sometimes with hostility because the Hanover king on the British throne did not please everyone. The German Count Palatine started a press campaign against Germans who had left in 1709 and the Germans were victims of general xenophobia.
Germany - reaction of the common people
* 1650 - 1750: Germans in Frankfurt did not like the Italian merchants and other economic migrants because of the competition.
France
- reaction of the common people
* 1650 -1750: France: The people of the well to do classes were used to foreigners. Foreigners surrounded the French nobility all the time. Kings married foreigners etc. But the peasants and labourers did have feelings of xenophobia. Especially when foreigners received a better economic position than they had. Gypsies were also victims of vehement reactions of the local population.
Netherlands
- official reaction
* 1650 - 1750: The Netherlands: Most newcomers were natives right away, so there were no legal differences. Only Jews and Gypsies were treated differently by the government. Jews were not allowed in the Guilds and Gypsies were chased away.
- reaction of the common people
* 16th - 19th century: Dutch people were very pleased with the arrival of foreigners, because there was a shortage of artisans and labourers. Merchants were welcomed because of their knowledge and wealth. Foreigners that remained unemployed however were treated badly.
- reaction of the common people
* 1650 - 1750: Northern Dutch thought of those from the Southern Netherlands as strange, because they had a different culture and different social fabric. In the Southern Netherlands it was difficult to become a citizen. This right was given by birth. Sometimes it was possible to get it by paying a lot of money or by marrying someone who had it.
Belgium
Nordic countries

4.2 Reactions of the immigrants on their new environment
- integration / assimilation
- maintaining their own identity
- differences between first, second and third generation

Western Europe UK
- maintaining their own identity

* 1650 - ....: German communities did not change much through the centuries. From 1650 onwards, the German community in London developed to be very sophisticated. They also founded the first German church.
Germany
- integration / assimilation
* 1650 - 1750: Italians in Germany wanted to integrate quickly. They asked for free trade and civil rights and often married German women.
France
- integration / assimilation
* German labour migrants in France and particularly Paris created a sub-middle class social milieu, which remained stable for some generations after the Restoration.
Netherlands
- maintaining their own identity
* 1650 - 1750: Labour migrants who went to the Netherlands were recognisable because of different social fabric, language and habits. They did not assimilate in Dutch society.

- maintaining their own identity

* 1650 - 1750: People from the Southern Netherlands did not assimilate with the people from the Northern Netherlands. They did not feel at home there.
Belgium, Nordic countries  

 

 

Dr. Marlou Schrover